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Nickel chloride

Basic information Description Properties Preparation Reaction Health Hazards References Safety Related Supplier

Nickel chloride Basic information

Product Name:
Nickel chloride
CAS:
7718-54-9
MF:
Cl2Ni
MW:
129.6
EINECS:
231-743-0
Mol File:
7718-54-9.mol
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Nickel chloride Chemical Properties

Melting point:
1001 °C
Boiling point:
987°C
Density 
3.55 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor pressure 
1.33 hPa (671 °C)
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
H2O: soluble
form 
powder
Specific Gravity
3.55
color 
Yellow to orange
PH
4 (500g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
slightly soluble
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,6505
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with peroxides.
InChIKey
QMMRZOWCJAIUJA-UHFFFAOYSA-L
CAS DataBase Reference
7718-54-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Nickel dichloride(7718-54-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
Nickel(II) chloride (7718-54-9)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
T,N,Xi
Risk Statements 
45-25-36/38-43-50-50/53-22-52/53-68-51/53-48/23-42/43-20/22-61-49-38-23/25
Safety Statements 
53-26-36/37-45-61-37-29-24-23-60
RIDADR 
UN 3288 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
QR6475000
3
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
6.1(b)
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28273500
Hazardous Substances Data
7718-54-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 48, 11 i.p. (IARC)

MSDS

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Nickel chloride Usage And Synthesis

Description

Nickel chloride is a brown or green colored solid. Most nickel chloride is used for electroplating and nickel plating, used to prepare various nickel salts and nickel catalysts; . During electroplating, it accelerates the dissolution of anode metal nickel, while acting to increase the electrolyte level of the solution. Nickel chloride can be used as catalyst for organic synthesis (e.g. pyrazolophthalazinyl spirooxindoles), to synthesize nickel nanoparticles as a reductant, and to prepare nickel coordination compounds, and and in industrial gas masks to protect from ammonia. It can also be used as an NH3 absorbent in gas masks and as a source of nickel ion for cell culture and toxicological studies.

Properties

NICKEL CHLORIDE is a brown or green colored solid. Its hexahydrate is a green monoclinic crystal, which is weathered in dry air and deliquescent in moist air. It is easily soluble in water, ethanol and ammonia. It is easily reduced to nickel when heated in hydrogen and becomes nickel oxide by heating in the air. It loses water of crystallization and becomes anhydrous in high temperature. The aqueous solution is acidic. Nickel chloride can combine with the anions of many inorganic and organic molecules to form nickel complexes, and form insoluble precipitates in weak acids.

Preparation

Anhydrous nickel chloride is prepared by burning nickel in chlorine gas.
Some other methods of preparation involve
(1) the action of acetyl chloride on nickel acetate in a nonaqueous solvent such as benzene:
(CH3COO)2Ni + 2CH3COCl → NiCl2 + 2CH3COOCOCH3
(2) the action of thionyl chloride on nickel chloride hexahydrate:
NiCl2•6H2O + 6SOCl2 → NiCl2 + 12HCl + 6SO2
(3) heating nickel chloride hexahydrate or nickel chloride ammoniate:
NiCl2•6H2O → NiCl2 + 6H2O
NiCl2•6NH3 → NiCl2 + 6NH3
The hexahydrate is prepared either by the action of hot dilute hydrochloric acid on nickel powder or by dissolving nickel oxide in dilute hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization. For the preparation of ammoniate, see Reactions below.

Reaction

When ammonia gas is passed over anhydrous nickel chloride the product is an ammoniate, hexamine nickel chloride, NiCl2•6NH3. Ammoniate also can be prepared in solution by dissolving nickel chloride hexahydrate in an aqueous solution of ammonia.
Nickel chloride forms double salts with alkali metal chlorides or ammonium chloride. Such double salts, NH4Cl•NiCl2•6H2O, are obtained as hexahydrate when crystallized from a mixed solution of nickel chloride and ammonium chloride in equimolar amounts.
Warming a solution of nickel chloride and sodium hydroxide at moderate concentrations may partially precipitate a basic salt of indefinite composition. The average composition of this salt is NiCl2•3Ni(OH)2. Salt composition may vary depending on reaction conditions.
When hydrogen sulfide is passed through a buffered solution of nickel chloride, nickel sulfide, NiS, precipitates.
An alcoholic solution of nickel chloride, when treated with an ethereal solution of dithiobenzoic acid, C6H5CSSH, blue nickel(II) dithiobenzoate,(C6H5CSS)2Ni, is formed:
NiCl2 + 2C6H5CSSH→ Ni (C6H5CSS)2 + 2HCl
The product oxidizes readily to a violet dimeric nickel(IV) complex.

Health Hazards

Acute Health Effects
The following acute (short-term) health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to Nickel Chloride:

  • Contact can irritate and bum the skin and eyes.
  • Breathing Nickel Chloride can irritate the nose, throat and lungs causing cough, phlegm and shortness of breath.
  Chronic Health Effects
The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Nickel Chloride and can last for months or years:

Cancer Hazard
  • Nickel Chloride may cause mutations (genetic changes). Whether or not it poses a cancer or reproductive hazard needs further study.
Reproductive Hazard
  • There is limited evidence that Nickel Chloride is a teratogen in animals. Until further testing has been done, it should be treated as a possible teratogen in humans.
Other Long-Term Effects
  • Nickel Chloride may cause a skin allergy. If allergy develops, very low future exposure can cause itching and a skin rash.
  • Nickel Chloride may cause an asthma-like allergy. Future exposure can cause asthma attacks with shortness of breath, wheezing, cough, and/or chest tightness.
  • Repeated exposure may cause scarring of the lungs and may affect the kidneys.

References

[1] X. N. Zhang, Y. X. Li and Z. H. Zhang, Nickel chloride-catalyzed one-pot three-component synthesis of pyrazolophthalazinyl spirooxindoles, Tetrahedron, 2011, vol. 67, 7426-7430
[2] Z. Jiang, J. Xie, D. Jiang, X. Wie and M. Chen, Modifiers- assisted formation of nickel nanoparticles and their catalytic application to p-nitrophenol reduction, CrystEngComm, 2013, vol. 15, 560-569
[3] NA Eckert, EM Bones, RJ Lachicotte and PL Holland, Nickel complexes of a bulky beta-diketiminate ligand, Inorg. Chem., 2003, vol. 42, 1720-1725

Chemical Properties

Brown scales, deliquescent

Chemical Properties

Nickel chloride appears as green or brown scales, or sparkling golden-yellow powder.

Physical properties

The anhydrous salt forms yellow crystal scales; deliquesces; density 3.55 g/cm3; melts at 1,001°C; sublimes at 973°C; highly soluble in water, 64 g/100mL at 20°C; soluble in alcohol.
The hexahydrate forms green monoclinic crystals; deliquesces; extremely soluble in water, 254 g/100mL at 20°C, and about 600 g/100 ml at 100°C; also very soluble in alcohol.

Uses

Nickel chloride (NiCl2) is used for electroplating nickel onto the surfaces of other metals and as a chemical reagent in laboratories.

Uses

Nickel chloride solutions are used for electroplating nickel onto other metal items.It also is used to prepare various nickel salts and nickel catalysts; and in industrial gas masks to protect from ammonia.

Definition

ChEBI: A compound of nickel and chloride in which the ratio of nickel (in the +2 oxidation state) to chloride is 1:2.
Nickel chloride is a yellow deliquescent solid with a boiling point of 973°C(1690°F). Nickel chloride is soluble in water and alcohol. Nickel chloride(hydrated),NiCI2·H20, is a gray deliquescent solid that is also soluble in water and alcohol.It is used in nickel plating.

Production Methods

Nickel chloride (hexahydrate) is obtained by reacting metal nickel powder or nickel oxide with hot, dilute hydrochloric acid.

Definition

hexahydrate: A crystalline compoundthat has six moles of waterper mole of compound.

Preparation

Nickel(II) chloride can be obtained by reaction of the elements either in a flow system at high temperatures or by reaction in ethanol at 20°. It is readily prepared in the laboratory by dehydration of the hexahydrate with thionyl chloride.

Hazard

Confirmed carcinogen.

Safety Profile

Confirmed human carcinogen. Poison by ingestion, intravenous, intramuscular, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Cl-. See also NICICEL COMPOUNDS.

Potential Exposure

Nickel chloride is used in electroplating and ink manufacturing.

Shipping

UN3288 Toxic solids, inorganic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

It crystallises from dilute HCl to form the green hexahydrate. At 70o this dehydrates to the tetrahydrate, and at higher temperatures it forms the anhydrous salt. It sublimes in yellow hexagonal scales in a stream of HCl. Store it in a desiccator as it is deliquescent. [Hart & Partington J Chem Soc 104 1943.]

Incompatibilities

Strong acids, potassium, sulfur. Forms an impact-sensitive mixture with potassium.

Waste Disposal

Recycle or disposal in a chemical waste landfill is recommended.

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Nickel chloride SupplierMore

Shanghai Darui Fine Chemicals Co., Ltd. Gold
Tel:
021-33922791-0
Email:
3368239663@qq.com;
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd. Gold
Tel:
021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
Email:
Sales-CN@TCIchemicals.com
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
Tel:
010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
Email:
jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
Tel:
21-61259100-
Email:
sh@meryer.com
Alfa Aesar
Tel:
400-610-6006; 021-67582000
Email:
saleschina@alfa-asia.com
Basic information Description Properties Preparation Reaction Health Hazards References Safety Related Supplier