HAFNIUM CARBIDE Chemical Properties
HAFNIUM CARBIDE Usage And Synthesis
Hafnium carbide (HfC) is a chemical compound of hafnium and carbon, which is one of the most refractory binary compounds known to man with a melting point of approximately 3900 ℃. Hafnium carbide powder is obtained by the reduction of hafnium oxide with carbon at 1800 to 2000℃, in which a long processing time is required to remove all oxygen. It possesses the highest melting point of any known binary alloy, because of which it has a variety of high-temperature applications. It is considered candidates for extremely high-temperature applications such as rocket nozzles and scramjet components. Hafnium carbide can also be used in hard coatings, often applied by processes such as plasma spraying. Besides, HfC structural foams can be fabricated into high temperature components or used as a thermal insulation material. It is also be used in ceramic industry.
dark, gray, brittle solid; fcc, a=0.4640 nm; high cross section for absorption of thermal neutrons; resistivity 8.8μohm· cm; most refractory binary material known; hardness 2300kgf/mm2; used in control rods of nuclear reactors; can be prepared by heating HfO2 with lampblack under H2 at 1900°C–2300°C; used in crucible form for melting hafnium oxide, other oxides [KIR80] [HAW93] [CER91]
It is an ideal metal in the manufacture of control rods for nuclear reactors.
Used for preparation of ultra-high temperature ceramics 1 Reactant in synthesis of hafnium-containing organometallic polymers 2 Additive in alloys 3 Used in coatings 4
Hafnium carbide (HfC) with a melting point over 3890°C is a refractory binary compound. HfC and NbC can also be used as refractory coatings in nuclear reactors. The mixed carbide Ta4HfC5 possesses the highest melting point of any currently known compound at 4215°C.
Hafnium carbide is a dark gray, brittle solid. It can be
prepared by heating a mixture of the elements or by reacting
hafnium tetrachloride with methane at 2100 C. Sufficient
quantities of hafnium oxide or hafnium metal sponge are
obtained during the large-scale production of pure zirconium
for nuclear reactors. On an industrial scale, hafnium carbide
can be produced from the hydrided hafnium sponge at
1500–1700 ℃ or from hafnium oxide at 2000–2200 ℃ by
carburization in vacuo in the presence of hydrogen.
The resulting carbide contains almost the theoretical quantity
of carbon (6.30% °C) and a maximum of 0.1% free carbon
(219). The hafnium carbide obtained is not a true
stoichiometric compound as much as a solution of carbon
at specific interstitial sites of a face-centered cubic hafnium
Hafnium carbide is inert to most reagents at room temperature but is dissolved by hydrofluoric acid solutions. Hafnium carbide reacts exothermally with halogens at 250–500 ℃to form hafnium tetrahalide, and to form hafnium oxide with oxygen above 500℃. In the presence of hydrogen, hafnium carbide slowly loses some of its carbon at higher temperatures.
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