Lead(II) sulfide Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- Boiling point:
- 1281°C (estimate)
- 7.5 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- refractive index
- storage temp.
- Soluble in strong HNO<sub>3</sub>, in excess of hot HCl
- Metallic Crystals, Powder Lump
- Specific Gravity
- Water Solubility
- Soluble in water (0.00086g/L) and acid. Insoluble in alcohol, and potassium hydroxide.
- Crystal Structure
- Cubic, Halite Structure - Space Group Fm3m
- Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
- pKsp: 27.1
- Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, acids, water.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 1314-87-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Lead(II) sulfide (1314-87-0)
Lead(II) sulfide Usage And Synthesis
Occurrence and Uses
Lead sulfide occurs in nature as the mineral galena. Most lead comes from this ore. Additionally, lead sulfide has several industrial applications. It is used in infrared detectors; transistors; photoconductive cells; high temperature lubricants; and for glazing earthenware. It also is used as a catalyst in petroleum refining for removal of mercaptans from petroleum distillates.
Black powder or cubic crystal; refractive index 3.91; Moh’s hardness 2.5; melts at 1,118°C; vapor pressure 1 torr at 852°C and 5 torr at 928°C; very slightly soluble in water (124 mg/L at 20°C); KSP 9.04x10–29 at 25°C; soluble in acids.
Lead sulfide occurs naturally as the mineral galena. It can be prepared in the laboratory as a black precipitate by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute acid solution of inorganic lead salt, such as lead nitrate or lead acetate:
Pb2+ + H2S → PbS + 2H+
It also is obtained by direct combination of elements by heating metallic lead with sulfur vapors.
Lead sulfide decomposes in excess concentrated hydrochloric acid liberating hydrogen sulfide and probably forming chloroplumbus acid in solution:
PbS + 4HCl → H2PbCl4 + H2S
Two types of reactions occur with nitric acid depending on the concentration of the acid. Lead sulfide dissolves in dilute nitric acid, oxidizing to elemental sulfur:
PbS + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + S + H2
However, treatment with concentrated nitric acid yields lead(II) sulfate:
PbS + 4HNO3 → PbSO4 + 4HNO2
Lead sulfide also undergoes various oxidation reactions at elevated temperatures that occur in a reverberatory furnace, during the production of lead from galena. Sulfur dioxide and lead sulfate are formed as intermediate products. Some typical reactions are as follows:
PbS + 2O2e→PbSO4
2PbS + 3O2→2PbO + 2SO2
PbS + 2PbO→3Pb + SO2
PbS + PbSO4→2Pb + 2SO2
When roasted in an air blast furnace, basic lead sulfate, PbO•PbSO4 (also known as sublimed white lead), is formed.
Lead(II) sulfide is a silvery to black crystalline powder.
Lead(II) sulfide can be precipitated from a solution of lead (II) salt and hydrogen sulfide.
Lead (II) sulfide has been used during many years as source of lead (Pb). The main method to obtain the lead is the smelting of PbS and then, the lead (II) oxide obtained is reduced to Pb and carbon monoxide:
2 PbS + 3 O2 → 2 PbO + 2 SO2
PbO + C → Pb + CO
Moreover, lead (II) sulfide is used as semiconductor and photoconductor due its chemical proprieties. It is also used as black pigment. In recent years, it has been used in to obtain nanoparticles to use in electronic or electric devices.
Lead gray in color, lead-gray streak, metallic luster, good cubic cleavage. Mohs hardness 2.5. Soluble in strong nitric acid, in excess of hot hydrochloric acid.
galena: A mineral form of lead(II)sulphide, PbS, crystallizing in thecubic system; the chief ore of lead. Itusually occurs as grey metallic cubes,frequently in association with silver,arsenic, copper, zinc, and antimony.Important deposits occur in Australia(at Broken Hill), Germany, the USA(especially in Missouri, Kansas, andOklahoma), and the UK.
The reaction between iodine monochloride and any of the following is vigorous: cadmium sulfide, LEAD(II) SULFIDE, silver sulfide, or zinc sulfide [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:502. 1956].
INHALATION OR INGESTION: Abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation, apathy or irritability, vomiting, fatigue, headache, weakness metallic taste and muscle incoordination. Lead line on gums. EYES: Irritation. May cause corneal destruction. SKIN: Pain and severe burns.
Behavior in Fire: At fire temperatures emits highly toxic and irritating sulfur oxides.
Lead sulfide is used in ceramics, infrared radiation detectors, and semiconductors.
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required. UN3288 Toxic solids, inorganic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1- Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.
Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, and iodine monochloride. Sulfides react with acids to produce toxic and flammable vapors of hydrogen sulfide.
Lead(II) sulfide Preparation Products And Raw materials
- LEAD(II) PERCHLORATE TRIHYDRATE
- Lead acetate trihydrate
- Lead(II) nitrate
- Lead tetraacetate
- LEAD(II) ACETYLACETONATE
- Lead monoxide
- LEAD ANTIMONIDE
- LEAD(II) CITRATE TRIHYDRATE
- Lead(II) iodide
- LEAD (II) HEXAFLUOROACETYLACETONATE
- Lead fluoride
- LEAD(II) BROMIDE
- LEAD TITANIUM OXIDE
- LEAD ZIRCONATE
- Lead(II) chloride
- Lead(II) sulfide
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