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Myristic acid

Basic information Chemical properties Application Preparation Toxicity Use limit Safety Related Supplier

Myristic acid Basic information

Product Name:
Myristic acid
CAS:
544-63-8
MF:
C14H28O2
MW:
228.37
EINECS:
208-875-2
Mol File:
544-63-8.mol
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Myristic acid Chemical Properties

Melting point:
52-54 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
250 °C100 mm Hg(lit.)
Density 
0.862
vapor pressure 
<0.01 hPa (20 °C)
refractive index 
nD60 1.4305; nD70 1.4273
FEMA 
2764 | MYRISTIC ACID
Flash point:
>230 °F
storage temp. 
−20°C
solubility 
1.07mg/l
pka
4.78±0.10(Predicted)
form 
Flakes, Powder, Chunks or Crystalline Mass
color 
White
Water Solubility 
<0.1 g/100 mL at 18 ºC
Merck 
14,6333
JECFA Number
113
BRN 
508624
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, bases.
CAS DataBase Reference
544-63-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Tetradecanoic acid(544-63-8)
EPA Substance Registry System
Myristic acid (544-63-8)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Xi
Risk Statements 
36/37/38-38
Safety Statements 
24/25
WGK Germany 
-
RTECS 
QH4375000
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29159080
Hazardous Substances Data
544-63-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 i.v. in mice: 432.6 mg/kg (Or, Wretlind)

MSDS

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Myristic acid Usage And Synthesis

Chemical properties

It appears as white to yellowish white solid, sometimes appearing as shiny crystalline solid, or white to yellowish white powder. It has a relative density of 0.8739 (80 ℃), melting point of 54.5 ℃ and the boiling point of 326.2 ℃. Its refractive index (nD60) is 1.4310. It is not soluble in water but soluble in ethanol, ether and chloroform.
Myristin contains about 70% to 80% while other kinds of coconut oil, palm kernel oil also contain it.

Application

  • It can be used as a chemical agent, also for the synthesis of spices and organic matter
  • It can be used in the manufacture of emulsifiers, waterproofing agents, curing agents, PVC heat stabilizers and plasticizers, and also used as the raw materials of spices and pharmaceutical.
  • It is mainly used as raw materials for the production of surfactants for the production of sorbitan fatty acid esters, glycerol fatty acid esters, ethylene glycol or propylene glycol fatty acid esters. It can also be used for the production of isopropyl myristate and so on. It can also be used for defoamers and flavoring agent. According to the provision of China GB2760-89, it can be used to prepare a variety of food spices.

Preparation

To prepare the myristic acid, the methyl ester of the mixed fatty acids or mixed fatty acid methyl ester obtained from the coconut oil or palm kernel oil is subject to vacuum fractionation, obtaining myristic acid. For laboratory preparation, glycerol tris (tetradecanoate) is subject to saponification with 10% sodium hydroxide solution, further being acidified with hydrochloric acid to obtain the free myristic acid. It can also be made from tetradecanol.

Toxicity

Natural fatty acids, non-toxic
Can be safely used for food (FDA, § 172.860; 2000).
LD50:43 mg/kg (mouse, transdermal).

Use limit

FEMA (mg/kg): soft drinks 5.3, cold drinks 2.6~10, candy 4.1, baked goods 5.3, pudding class 0.10.

Description

Myristic acid, also called tetradecanoic acid , is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH. A myristate is a salt or ester of myristic acid.
Myristic acid is named after the nutmeg Myristica fragrans. Nutmeg butter is 75 % trimyristin, the triglyceride of myristic acid. Besides nutmeg, myristic acid is also found in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butter fat and is a minor component of many other animal fats. It is also found in spermaceti, the crystallized fraction of oil from the sperm whale.
Myristic acid is also commonly added co-translationally to the penultimate, nitrogen-terminus, glycine in receptor-associated kinases to confer the membrane localisation of the enzyme. The myristic acid has a sufficiently high hydrophobicity to become incorporated into the fatty acyl core of the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of the eukaryotic cell. In this way, myristic acid acts as a lipid anchor in biomembranes.
The ester isopropyl myristate is used in cosmetic and topical medicinal preparations where good absorption through the skin is desired.
Reduction of myristic acid yields myristyl aldehyde and myristyl alcohol.

Chemical Properties

Prepared from the fatty acid mixture of palm seed oil.

Chemical Properties

Myristic acid has a faint, waxy, oily odor

Chemical Properties

white solid

Chemical Properties

Myristic acid occurs as an oily white crystalline solid with a faint odor.

Occurrence

Reported found in nutmeg, palm seed, sperm whale oil, blue cheese, burley tobacco, cooked beef and chicken, fish, rum, apricot, banana, lemon and grapefruit juice, cranberry, guava, grapes, melon, papaya, raspberry, strawberry fruit and jam, cucumber, tomato, many cheeses, thyme, breads, butter, milk, lamb liver, pork, hop oil, beer, cognac, whiskies, peanut oil, cocoa, tea, coconut meat and milk, cloudberry, beans, passion fruit, mushroom, mango, starfruit, tamarind, kelp, cardamom, rice, buckwheat, watercress, malt, wort, loquat, Bourbon vanilla, lemon balm, shrimp, nectarine, crab, scallop, squid, cape gooseberry, Chinese quince, pawpaw and sweet grass oi

Uses

myristic acid is a surfactant and cleansing agent. When combined with potassium, myristic acid soap provides very good, abundant lather. This is a solid organic acid naturally occurring in butter acids such as nutmeg, oil of lovage, coconut oil, mace oil, and most animal and vegetable fats. Although some sources cite it as having no irritation potential, they do indicate comedogenicity potential.

Uses

Myristic Acid is a fatty acid obtained from coconut oil and other fats. it has poor water solubility but is soluble in alcohol, chloro- form, and ether. it is used as a lubricant, binder, and defoaming agent.

Uses

Myristic Acid is a common saturated fatty acid found in nutmeg, palm kernel oil, coconut oil and butter fat.

Uses

Myristic acid is a 14-carbon saturated (14:0) fatty acid. In vivo, it is commonly added covalently to the N-terminus of proteins in a co-translational process termed N-myristoylation. In addition, there are examples where N-myristoylation occurs post-translationally, when a hidden myristoylation pattern is exposed.

Definition

ChEBI: A straight-chain, fourteen-carbon, long-chain saturated fatty acid mostly found in milk fat.

Production Methods

Myristic acid occurs naturally in nutmeg butter and in most animal and vegetables fats. Synthetically, it may be prepared by electrolysis of methyl hydrogen adipate and decanoic acid or by Maurer oxidation of myristyl alcohol.

Preparation

From fatty acid mixture of palm seed oil

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 10 ppm

General Description

Oily white crystalline solid.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Myristic acid is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in Myristic acid to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. A wide variety of products is possible. Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.

Fire Hazard

Myristic acid is probably combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Myristic acid is used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. Myristic acid has been evaluated as a penetration enhancer in melatonin transdermal patches in rats and bupropion formulations on human cadaver skin.Further studies have assessed the suitability of myristic acid in oxymorphone formulations and clobetasol 17-propionate topical applications.Furthermore, polyvinyl alcohol substituted with myristic acid (as well as other fatty acids) at different substitution degrees has been used for the preparation of biodegradable microspheres containing progesterone or indomethacin.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. Mutation data reported. An eye and human skin irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety

Myristic acid is used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations and is generally regarded as nontoxic and nonirritant at the levels employed as an excipient. However, myristic acid is reported to be an eye and skin irritant at high levels and is poisonous by intravenous administration. Mutation data have also been reported.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.043 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): >10 g/kg

storage

The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry, place.

Purification Methods

Purify the acid via the methyl ester (b 153-154o/10mm, n25 1.4350), as for capric acid. [Trachtman & Miller J Am Chem Soc 84 4828 1962.] Also purify it by zone melting. It crystallises from pet ether, and is dried in a vacuum desiccator containing shredded wax. [Beilstein 2 IV 1126.]

Incompatibilities

Myristic acid is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents and bases.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral capsules). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK.

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Myristic acidSupplierMore

Nanjing Done?Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. Gold
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Product Name:Myristic acid
CAS:544-63-8
Purity:99min Package:25公斤
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
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400-666-7788 010-82848833-
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Product Name:Myristic acid, 99%
CAS:544-63-8
Purity:99% Package:100G;500G
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
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400-660-8290 21-61259100-
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Product Name:Myristic acid
CAS:544-63-8
Purity:98% Package:250g;500g Remarks:AAA125174
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd.
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Product Name:n-Myristic acid
CAS:544-63-8
Purity:98% HPLC Package:1g;5g;25g;100g
Chembest Research Laboratories Limited
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021-20908456-
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Product Name:Myristic acid
CAS:544-63-8
Remarks:C11554
Basic information Chemical properties Application Preparation Toxicity Use limit Safety Related Supplier