Sodium tetraborate decahydrate
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 75 °C
- Boiling point:
- 1.73 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor pressure
- 0.213 hPa (20 °C)
- storage temp.
- Store at RT.
- H2O: 0.1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- Specific Gravity
- White, gray, bluish or greenish white streaked
- 9.15-9.20 (25℃, 0.01M in solution)
- PH Range
- Water Solubility
- 60 g/L (20 ºC)
- λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.012
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.010
- CAS DataBase Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Borax (1303-96-4)
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate Usage And Synthesis
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate also known as Borax, sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate is a naturally occurring compound.
It is mostly used as a cleaning aid especially for laundry (softening the water). As a cleaning aid, borax is also used as dishwasher detergent, as floor and wall cleaner, and to clean outdoor furniture, toilet, porcelain sinks, stains from stainless steel. Borax can be used for parasite control to keep ants, water bugs, and cockroaches away and help dogs with mange and people with a variety of parasite problems including lice and mites. Due to its alkalinity and antifungal properties, Borax is used in hair care products to heal chronic and embarrassing scalp conditions. Borax is also used as a remedy for health problems (arthritis, osteoporosis, bone spurs, calcium deposits, lupus, autoimmune disease, hormone imbalances, fungus, candida, ringworm, tinea versicolor, insomnia, rough skin). Furthermore, Borax is applied as a fire retardant, as a flux in metallurgy, as a precursor for other boron compounds, as anti-fungal compound for fiberglass and cellulose insulation, to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, and to make indelible ink for dip pens by dissolving shellac into heated borax.
White cryst. powder
Borax is a noncombustible (an inherent fire retardant), bluish-gray or green, odorless crystalline powder or granules.
Sodium borate occurs as white, hard crystals, granules, or crystalline powder. It is odorless and efflorescent.
White monoclinic crystal; density 1.73 g/cm3; decomposes at 75°C; soluble in water; the vapor pressure of the pure compound 1.6 torr at 20°C and that of a saturated solution 130 torr at 58°C; the pH of a 1% aqueous solution 9.24 (the pH is nearly independent of concentration); readily dissolves in alcohols.
Borax decahydrate occurs in nature as mineral, borax (tincal). It is one of the most common sodium borate ores. The compound has several industrial applications. The refined material is mostly used in household cleaning products. It is used to make pyrex and other borosilicate glasses. Borax is added to fertilizers in small quantities as a source of boron, as a trace nutrient for plants. High purity grade borax is used in cosmetics, toilet products and electrolytic capacitors. It also is used in fire retardants, adhesives and herbicides.
A natural, colorless salt crystal found in some lake beds. It is soluble in water and glycerin but not in alcohol. When mixed with water, it produces a slight alkaline reaction. Its use in photography was principally as a pH modifier in gold toning baths, but it was also used as a restrainer in pyrogallic acid developers and as an accelerator in hydroquinone developers.
Buffers; complexing or masking agent.
Soldering metals; manufacture of glazes and enamels; tanning; in the production of adhesives and in anticorrosion systems; in cleaning Compounds; artificially aging wood; as preservative, either alone or with other antiseptics against wood fungus; fireproofing fabrics and wood; curing and preserving skins; in cockroach control. Pharmaceutic aid (alkalizer).
Sodium borate can be prepared from minerals such as borosodium calcite, pandermite, or tinkal; these are natural sodium or calcium borates. Treatment of the mineral with sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogencarbonate yields the sodium borate decahydrate. In the USA, brine from salt lakes is also an important source of sodium borate.
Toxic by inhalation.
Borates are irritants of the eyes, nose, and throat; at high concentrations ingestion of the compounds can result in gastrointestinal irritation, kidney injury, and even death from central nervous system depression or cardiovascular collapse.
Sodium borate is used in pharmaceutical applications similarly to
boric acid (see Boric Acid). It has been used externally as a mild
astringent and as an emulsifying agent in creams. It has also been
used in lozenges, mouthwashes, otic preparations (0.3% w/v), and
ophthalmic solutions (0.03–1.0% w/v). Sodium borate has additionally
been investigated in the prevention of crystal formation in
Preparations of sodium borate in honey have historically been used as paints for the throat, tongue, and mouth, but such use is now inadvisable because of concerns about toxicity in such applications. Sodium borate is also used in cosmetics such as moisturizers, deodorants, and shampoos.
Borate is a salt of boric acid (H3BO3). There are two known types of borates - orthoborate and metaborate which are used as fertilizers. Besides these, polyborates, boric acid, calcium polyborate (colemanite), sodium tetraborate, solubor and complex borosilicate (boron frits) are also used as fertilizers to reduce boron deficiency. Borate minerals like kernite and tincal are the main sources of borax.
Borax, a source of boron, is the salt of boric acid, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Borax, otherwise called disodium tetraborate decahydrate(Na2B4O7·10H2O)is a water-soluble white compound. It occurs as a mineral in some alkaline salt deposits. The main sources of borax are borate minerals, kernite(Na2B4·4H2O),a sorite and heal(Na2B4O7·10H2O)which are purified by recrystallization. On treatment with an acid, borax gives boric acid which is absorbed as boron by plants. Borax contains 10.5 to 11.4% boron or 36.5% boric oxide (B2O3).
Borax is a supplier of micronutrient boron for plants and is applied as such or as a foliar spray. Solubor is preferred to borax for its greater solubility and because it causes minimum changes in the crystallization temperature.
Borax is a very important substance in other industries too. It is used as a metallurgical flux in glass and ceramic industries, a buffer, a mild alkaline antiseptic and a source of boron compounds.
Solubor is a type of borate containing 20.3% boron. It is chemically a polyborate, similar to borax, and is represented as Na2B2O7?5H2O +Na2B10O16?10H2O. is a finely-ground, white product specially designed for foliar, liquid or dust applications, to correct boron deficiency.
Experimental poison by subcutaneous route. Moderately toxic to humans by ingestion. Moderately toxic experimentally by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Ingestion of 5-10 g of borax by children can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, shock, death. Incompatible with acids, metallic salts. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Na2O, boron. See also BORON COMPOUNDS. Used in ant poisons, for fly control around refuse and manure piles, as a larvicide, in manufacture of glazes, enamels, cleaning compounds, and in soldering metals.
Sodium borate has weak bacteriostatic and astringent properties.
Historically, sodium borate has been used as a disinfectant in skin
lotions and eye-, nose-, and mouthwashes. However, boric acid is
easily absorbed via mucous membranes and damaged skin, and
severe toxicity has been observed, especially in babies and
children. Consequently, the use of sodium borate as a disinfectant
is now considered somewhat obsolete and careful use is recommended.
The toxic effects of sodium borate include vomiting,
diarrhea, erythema, CNS depression, and kidney damage. The
lethal oral intake is approximately 20 g in adults and 5 g in
LD50 (guinea pig, oral): 5.33 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IP): 2.711 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 1.320 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 2.0 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 2.66 g/kg
Borax is used as a soldering flux, preservative against wood fungus; and as an antiseptic. Used in ant poisons, for fly control around refuse and manure piles, as a larvicide. It is used in the manufacture of enamels and glazes, fiberglass insulation; sodium perborate bleach; in tanning, cleaning compounds; for fireproofing fabrics and wood; and in artificial aging of wood.
Sodium borate tested negatively in the Ames bioassay but was found to be cytotoxic to cultured human fibroblasts.
Sodium borate should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry, place.
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9—Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
Crystallise the borate from water (3.3mL/g), keeping below 55o to avoid formation of the pentahydrate. Filter it off at the pump, wash it with water and equilibrate it for several days in a desiccator containing an aqueous solution saturated with respect to sucrose and NaCl. Borax can be prepared more quickly (but its water content is somewhat variable) by washing the recrystallised material at the pump with water, followed by 95% EtOH, then Et2O, and dried in air at room temperature for 12-18hours on a clock glass. [Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 794-795 1963.]
Dissolves in water forming a basic solution. Boron dust may form explosive mixture with air. Contact with strong oxidizers may be violent. Boron is incompatible with ammonia, bromine tetrafluoride, cesium carbide, chlorine, fluorine, interhalogens, iodic acid, lead dioxide, nitric acid, nitric oxide, nitrosyl fluoride, nitrous oxide, potassium nitrite, rubidium carbide, silver fluoride.
Sodium borate is incompatible with acids and with metallic and alkaloidal salts.
Borax, dehydrated: The material is diluted to the recommended provisional limit (0.10 mg/L) in water. The pH is adjusted to between 6.5 and 9.1 and then the material can be discharged into sewers or natural streams.
Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (otic preparations; ophthalmic solutions and suspensions). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Japan. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
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