SODIUM SULFATE DECAHYDRATE
SODIUM SULFATE DECAHYDRATE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 1.46 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- storage temp.
- H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- Specific Gravity
- 5.2-8.0 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃)(anhydrous substance)
- Water Solubility
- Soluble in water and glycerin. Insoluble in ethanol and methanol.
- λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.025
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.021
- Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, aluminium, magnesium.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 7727-73-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Disodium sulfate decahydrate (7727-73-3)
- Safety Statements
- WGK Germany
- HS Code
SODIUM SULFATE DECAHYDRATE Usage And Synthesis
Sodium sulfate occurs in nature as the minerals mirabilite and thenardite. While thenardite is the anhydrous form of Na2SO4, mirabilite is a naturallyoccurring decahydrate, Na2SO4•10H2O.
Sodium sulfate is one of the most important sodium salts. The decahydrate,commonly known as the Glauber’s salt, was first prepared by Johann Glauber in the seventeenth century as a by-product in making hydrochloric acid from sulfuric acid and sodium chloride.
Anhydrous sodium sulfate is a white crystalline powder; orthorhombic or hexagonal structure; hygroscopic; refractive index 1.468; hardness 2.8 Mohs; density 2.664 g/cm3; melts at 884°C; soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol.
The decahydrate consists of colorless monoclinic crystals; refractive index 1.394; hardness 1.8 Mohs; density 1.4 6g/cm3; decomposes at 32°C; soluble in water; insoluble in ethanol.
Sodium sulfate is mined from its natural mineral deposits and subjected to purification. Sodium sulfate is synthesized by the Mannheim process or Hargreaves process. Manheim’s process is based on Glauber’s reaction between sulfuric acid and sodium chloride:
2NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2HCl↑
The process was devised by Johann Glauber to produce hydrochloric acid. Sodium sulfate is isolated from the solution by fractional crystallization. Hargreaves’ process also was developed to produce hydrochloric acid. It is a variation of Mannheim’s method. In this method, sulfur dioxide is used instead of sulfuric acid. The reaction is as follows:
4NaCl + 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O → 2Na2SO4 + 4HCl↑
Sodium sulfate also is obtained as a byproduct of manufacturing phenol by caustic fusion.
White or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless, transparent crystals.
Sodium sulfate decahydrate is used in manufacturing paper pulp by the Kraft Process. Other uses are in manufacturing glass and ultramarine; in dyeing and printing textiles; as a filler in synthetic detergents; and for standardizing dyes. A major use of anhydrous sodium sulfate is as an agent to remove water from organic solvents and their extracts for organic synthesis and instrumental analysis. Sodium sulfate decahydrate is a common laboratory reagent. Also, it is used to prepare other sodium salts.
Crystallise sodium sulfate from water at 30o (1.1mL/g) by cooling to 0o. It becomes anhydrous at 32o.
SODIUM SULFATE DECAHYDRATE Preparation Products And Raw materials
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