2-Naphthylamine Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 111-113 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 306 °C(lit.)
- 1.061 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor pressure
- 2.56 x 10-4 mmHg at 20–30 °C (quoted, Mercer et al., 1990)
- refractive index
- 1.5000 (estimate)
- storage temp.
- -20°C Freezer
- Solubility Soluble in hot water, ethanol, ether
- 4.16(at 25℃)
- pink to purple
- PH Range
- Non& uorescence (2.8) to violet & uorescence (4.4)
- Water Solubility
- <0.1 g/100 mL at 22 ºC
- Henry's Law Constant
- 2.01 x 10-9 atm?m3/mol at 25 °C (quoted, Mercer et al., 1990)
- Exposure limits
- Since it is a carcinogen, there is no TLV TWA for this compound. Recognized Carcinogen (ACGIH); Carcinogen (OSHA); Human Sufficient Evidence (IARC).
- Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- Major Application
- Microelectronics, power transmission & fluid, insulators for electronic devices, photoresists, display device, imaging process, semiconductors, diesel fuel additives, battery, adhesive, paints, inks, chalk, leather, textiles, dye synthesis, soil products
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 91-59-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- 2-Naphthalenamine (91-59-8)
- Hazard Codes
- Risk Statements
- Safety Statements
- UN 1650 6.1/PG 2
- WGK Germany
- HS Code
- Hazardous Substances Data
- 91-59-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
- LD50 (intraperitoneal) for mice 200 mg/kg (quoted, RTECS, 1985).
2-Naphthylamine Usage And Synthesis
2-Naphthylamine is also known as β-Naphthylamine, it is white to pink shiny flaky crystal, it is volatile with water vapor. It is harmful, carcinogenic, the International Institute for Cancer Research (IARC) put benzidine, 2-Naphthylamine and 4-aminobiphenyl as a human carcinogen (evidence), we should be particularly careful. The relative density is 1.0614 (98/4℃), m.p. is 111~113℃, boiling point is 306℃. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in hot water, ethanol, ether and benzene etc. Aqueous solution is blue fluorescence. It can be reducted by heat silver nitrate ammonia solution. It is synthesized by 2-naphthol with ammonia and ammonium sulfite in a high pressure system. 2-Naphthylamine is an important dye intermediates, can be used in the manufacture of dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, reactive dyes (Reactive brilliant orange K-7R, active golden XG, active golden KM-G, Reactive Yellow KM-RN, big red group B) and J acid. It can also be used as organic analytical reagents and fluorescent indicator, and also as a synthesis of organic materials.
It can enter from the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Long-term exposure β-Naphthylamine can cause bladder cancer. It can cause weak stimulation of the skin, contact dermatitis, and methemoglobinemia. After the diagnosis of bladder cancer should be early surgery. Prevention should be carried out from the reform process firstly, 1-naphthylamine acetic acid should be used in place of β-Naphthylamine. Production equipment should be tightly closed to prevent the escape of toxic vapors and dusts.
structure of 2-naphthylamine
Amino and nitrite of Aminonaphthalene can form diazonium salt, and can turn into a variety of hydrocarbon derivatives of naphthalene, it can be used in the manufacture of dyes and organic synthesis, also used as indicators of organic analytical reagents and fluorescent agents.
Since the nitration of naphthalene can not obtain 2-nitro-naphthalene, so the producing methods is different from 1-Naphthylamine. 2-Naphthylamine is derived by 2-naphthol pressurized ammonia solution.
2-Naphthylamine is a white to red crystals with a faint, aromatic odor. Darkens in air to a reddish-purple color.
White crystals becomes purplish-red on exposure to air. Odor threshold concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 mg/m3 (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992).
It is listed as a known human carcinogen. Used in manufacturing of dyes, as antioxidant in rubber
An amine compound used for research purposes
2-Naphthylamine was widely used in themanufacture of dyes and in rubber. Currently, its use is curtailed because of thehealth hazard.
2-Naphthylamine was previously produced in substantial
amounts for nearly 50 years but is no longer produced
commercially. It is now used exclusively for research, and
only rarely. It was formerly used in the manufacture of
dyestuffs and as an antioxidant in the rubber industry.
Prior to termination of its domestic production and use in the dye and rubber industries, an estimated 1000 U.S. workers were possibly exposed to 2-naphthylamine by inhalation and dermal routes. Currently, laboratory technicians and scientists who use the compound for research purposes may constitute the group with the greatest risk of potential exposure.
ChEBI: A naphthylamine carrying the amino group at position 2.
A white to reddish colored solid in the form of flakes. Slightly soluble in hot water and denser than water. Toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. Used to make dyes and agricultural chemicals.
Air & Water Reactions
2-Naphthylamine darkens in air to a reddish-purple color (oxidizes). Slightly soluble in hot water and denser than water. Napthyl amines can be slowly hydrolyzed, releasing NH3 as a byproduct [N.L. Drake, Org. React. 1, (1942), 105].
2-Naphthylamine is a weak base. 2-Naphthylamine is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents and strong acids. 2-Naphthylamine is also incompatible with nitrous acid. 2-Naphthylamine reduces warm ammoniacal silver nitrate.
Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption; a confirmed carcinogen. Causes bladder cancer.
2-Naphthylamine poses a severe health haz ard because of its carcinogenicity. Admin istration of this compound by all routesresulted in cancers in various tissues in testanimals. It caused tumors in the kidney, blad der, liver, lungs, skin, and blood tissues.There is sufficient evidence that this com pound causes bladder cancer in humans aftera latent period of several years.The toxicity of 2-naphthylamine is lowto moderate. However, high doses can pro duce severe acute toxic effects. The routesof exposures are ingestion, skin contact, andinhalation of its dusts or vapors. The acutetoxic symptoms are similar to those produced by 1-naphthylamine: hemorrhagic cystitis or methemoglobinemia (causing hypoxiaor inadequate supply of oxygen to tissues),respiratory distress, and hematuria (blood inurine).LD50 value, oral (rats): 727 mg/kg.
Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Confirmed human carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data. Long and continued exposure to even small amounts may produce tumors and cancers of the bladder. Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A very toxic chemical in any of its physical forms, such as flake, lump, dust, liquid, or vapor. It can be absorbed into the body through the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, or the skin. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. At elevated temperatures it evolves a vapor that is flammable and explosive. Incompatible with nitrous acid. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
2-Naphthylamine is presently used only for research purposes. It is present as an impurity in α-naphthylamine. It is as an intermediate in the preparation of other compounds. 2-Naphthylamine was widely used in the manufacture of dyestuffs; as an antioxidant for rubber; and in rubber coated cables.
2-Naphthylamine is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans.
Photolytic. Low et al. (1991) reported that the photooxidation of aqueous primary amine
solutions by UV light in the presence of titanium dioxide resulted in the formation of ammonium
and nitrate ions.
Chemical/Physical. Kanno et al. (1982) studied the aqueous reaction of 2-naphthylamine and other substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (aniline, toluidine, 1-naphthylamine, phenol, cresol, pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, and 1-naphthol) with hypochlorous acid in the presence of ammonium ion. They reported that the aromatic ring was not chlorinated as expected but was cleaved by chloramine forming cyanogen chloride. At lower pHs, the amount of cyanogen chloride formed increased (Kanno et al., 1982).
2-Naphthylamine will not hydrolyze because it does not contain a hydrolyzable functional group (Kollig, 1993).
At influent concentrations of 10, 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities were 300, 150, 75, and 37 mg/g, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).
UN1650 β-Naphthylamine, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
Sublime the amine at 180o in a stream of nitrogen. Crystallise it from hot water (charcoal) or *benzene. Dry it under vacuum in a drying pistol. The styphnate has m 194-195o (from EtOH). [Beilstein 12 H 1265, 12 III 2989, 12 IV 3122.] CARCINOGEN.
A weak base. Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Incompatible with nitrous acid.
Controlled incineration whereby oxides of nitrogen are removed from the effluent gas by scrubber, catalyst, or thermal device. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
2-Naphthylamine Preparation Products And Raw materials
- nitrazine yellow
- ACID RED 4
- ARSENAZO I
- ARSENAZO III DISODIUM SALT
- SUDAN RED 7B
- Mordant Blue 13
- ACID VIOLET 5
- 6-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxy-4-sulfophenylazo)-5-hydroxy-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid disodium salt
- DIRECT VIOLET 51
- Direct Red 23
- ACID VIOLET 7
- Pigment Red 53:1
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