1-Chloronaphthalene Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- −20 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 111-113 °C5 mm Hg(lit.)
- 1.194 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor pressure
- 0.05 hPa (20 °C)
- refractive index
- Flash point:
- 250 °F
- storage temp.
- alcohol: soluble
- Clear colorless to yellow, product may discolor during storage
- 7 (H2O, 20℃)(undiluted)
- Water Solubility
- insoluble. <0.1 g/100 mL at 20 ºC
- Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 90-13-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- Naphthalene, 1-chloro-(90-13-1)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- 1-Chloronaphthalene (90-13-1)
- Hazard Codes
- Risk Statements
- Safety Statements
- WGK Germany
- Autoignition Temperature
- >500 °C
- Hazard Note
- HS Code
- Hazardous Substances Data
- 90-13-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
- LD50 orally in Rabbit: 1540 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rat > 2000 mg/kg
1-Chloronaphthalene Usage And Synthesis
The chlorinated naphthalenes in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by chlorine to form wax-like substances, beginning with monochloronaphthalene and going on to the octachlor derivatives. Their physical states vary from mobile liquids to waxysolids depending on the degree of chlorination; freezing/ melting points of the pure compounds range from 17C for 1-chloronaphthalene to 198C for 1,2,3,4- tetrachloronaphthalene. 1-Chloro-isomer: Hazard identification (based on NFPA-704 M Rating System): Health 2, flammability 1, reactivity 0. 2-Chloro-isomer:
1-Chloronaphthalene was widely used in Xylamits as a wood preservative with fungicidal and insecticidal properties in the past in Poland. 2-Chloronaphthalene was produced and used as a solvent in Poland, some of PCNs were found in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners.
Clear colorless to amber oily viscous liquid.
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
1-Chloronaphthalene is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
1-Chloronaphthalene is combustible.
Industrial exposure from individual chlorinated naphthalenes is rarely encountered; rather it usually occurs from mixtures of two or more Chlorinated naphthalenes. Due to their stability, thermoplasticity, and nonflammability, these compounds enjoy wide industrial application. These compounds are used in the production of electric condensers; in the insulation of electric cables and wires; as additives to extreme pressure lubricants; as supports for storage batteries; and as a coating in foundry use. octachloro-: Used as a fireproof and waterproof additive and lubricant additive. Pentachloro-: Used in electric wire insulation and in additives to special lubricants. tetrachloro-: Used in electrical insulating materials and as an additive in cutting oils. trichloro-: Used in lubricants and in the manufacture of insulation for electrical wire. Because of the possible potentiation of the toxicity of higher Chlorinated naphthalenes by ethanol and carbon tetrachloride, individuals who ingest enough alcohol to result in liver dysfunction would be a special group at risk. Individuals, e.g., analytical and synthetic chemists, mechanics and cleaners, who are routinely exposed to carbon tetrachloride or other hepatotoxic chemicals would also be at a greater risk than a population without such exposure. Individuals involved in the manufacture, utilization, or disposal of polychlorinated naphthalenes would be expected to have higher levels of exposure than the general population.
UN3082 Environmentally hazardous substances, liquid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
Wash the naphthalene with dilute NaHCO3, then dry it with Na2SO4 and fractionally distil it in vacuo. Alternatively, before distillation, it is passed through a column of activated alumina, or dried with CaCl2, then distilled from sodium. It can be further purified by fractional crystallisation by partial freezing or by crystallisation of its picrate to constant melting point (m 132-133o) from EtOH, and recovering it from the picrate. [Beilstein 5 H 541, 5 III 1570, 5 IV 1658.]
As early as 1955, Walker and Wiltshire observed that 1-chloronaphthalene could be biodegraded. They obtained from soil samples two unidentified bacterial cultures which were able to use 1-chloronaphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy. When grown on 1-chloronaphthalene the metabolites 8-chloro-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene and 3-chlorosalicylic acid were formed. The latter was proposed to be degraded to 3-chlorocatechol, which was further mineralized to carbon dioxide via the oltho-cleavage pathway. In another study, 7-chloro- 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene was produced during the bacterial degradation of 2-chloronaphthalene (Callahan et al . , 1979; Canonica et al., 1957).
Growth on both monochloronaphthalenes (each 1 mg/l) by a mixed bacterial culture was also observed by Okey and Bogan (1965). They found that 2-chloronaphthalene was metabolized faster than 1-chloronaphthalene. The results indicated that the mechanism of monochloronaphthalene degradation is similar to what is observed for naphthalene, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene (Mahajan et al., 1994).
Morris and Barnsley (1982) studied the cometabolic conversion of 2-chloronaphthalene in more detail. They obtained Pseudomonas strains which cometabolized both monochloronaphthalenes when grown on naphthalene and suggested that 2-monochloronaphthalene was metabolized to the intermediates 4-chlorosalicylic acid and 4-chlorocatechol. The latter intermediate was meta cleaved to 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde which was slowly metabolized further. This rate-limiting step probably prohibited growth on 2-chloronaphthalene.
All are incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Keep away from heat. Penta- is also incompatible with acids, alkalis.
High-temperature incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.
- Calcium chloride
- Cyclopentyl chloride
- Choline chloride
- Chloronaphthalene, beta,2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE, 1000MG, NEAT,2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE, 1X1ML, MEOH, 5000UG /ML,2-chloronaphthalene solution,b-Chloronaphthalene
- CHLORIDE STANDARD
- Benzyl chloride
- Methylene Chloride
- Polyvinyl chloride
- Sodium chloride
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