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Citronella oil

Basic information Essential oils Chemical properties Uses plant origin Specificationstraits Function The standard of allowable maximum amount and residue Safety Related Supplier

Citronella oil Basic information

Product Name:
Citronella oil
Mol File:
Mol File

Citronella oil Chemical Properties

Boiling point:
222 °C(lit.)
0.897 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.471(lit.)
Flash point:
195 °F
storage temp. 
Stable. Flammable.
EPA Substance Registry System
Citronella oil (8000-29-1)

Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Risk Statements 
Safety Statements 
WGK Germany 
HS Code 
The acute oral LD50 in rats was reported as > 5 g/kg (Shelanski & Moldovan, 1971). The acute dermal LD50 in rabbits was reported as 4.7 ml/kg (3.4-6.7 ml/kg) (Shelanski & Moldovan, 1971).



Citronella oil Usage And Synthesis

Essential oils

Citronella oil, also known as vanilla oil is a kind of essential oil produced by the steam distillation of citronella or sub-lemongrass. It is a light yellow to light brown clear liquid, with the characteristic aroma of citronellal. The aroma of Ceylon type is thick and poor. This essential oil is insoluble in glycerol and propylene glycol, soluble in most volatile oils, mineral oils and ethanol. Java-type oil: the relative density is 0.880~0.895 (20/20 ℃); the refractive index is 1.466~1.473. Ceylon oil: the relative density is 0.894~0.910 (20/20 ℃), the refractive index is 1.479 to 1.487. The main components are citronellal (35% to 45% Java type; 5% to 16% Ceylon type), geraniol (85% Java type; 60% Ceylon), citral, eugenol, vanillin, eugenol, butanedione, benzaldehyde, methylheptenone, juniperene, isovaleraldehyde, geranyl and its esters, etc.
Citronella oil is one of the important natural spices, mainly used for soap and detergent. It is also used in repellent. But the main purpose is to acquire citronellal and geraniol from citronella oil, and further to synthesize hydroxy citronellal, rose alcohol, citral, ionone, vitamin A and a series of citronella oil spices to produce cosmetics and flavoring as well as menthol which used in the pharmaceutical industry, and repellent. Citronella oil also has the function of sterilization, anti-inflammatory, relief of swelling and pain, active, etc.
Java citronella cymbopogon wintorianus Jowitt and Ceylon citronella C.nardus Rondle are two major cultivars around the world. Java citronella is also known as Ma-hapangiri, with an oil yield of 1.2-1.4% and a total alcohol content of 80-90%: Ceylon citronella, also known as Lonabatupangiri, with an oil yield of 0.37~0.4%, and the total alcohol content of 55~65%. So Java citronella are widely planted in the world's tropical countries.
The above information is edited by the editors Tongtong from the chemicalbook.

Chemical properties

Yellow liquid; relative density: 0.8842-0.8965; refractive index: 1.4650-1.480; with a strong grass aroma.


Citronella oil is one of the important natural spices. It can be directly used as soap spices, mainly used for separation and extraction of citronellal and geraniol, and further to synthesize citronellol, hydroxy citronellal, rose alcohol, menthol and other important spices.

plant origin

derived from the whole plant distilled by citronella steam.


light yellow liquid, strong, slightly sweet, with a strong grass aroma; relative density: 0.888~0.892; refractive index (20 ℃): 1.470~1.474 ; content: more than 35% citronellal, 85% citronellol.


Act as a pesticide, anophelifuge,soap perfume.

The standard of allowable maximum amount and residue

Name of additives: Citronella oil
Name of food allowable for the additive: food
Function of the additive: Spices used in food
Maximum allowable amount (g/kg): The amount of spices to compound essence should be lower than the allowable maximum amount and residue listed in GB 2760.
Maximum allowable residue (g/kg):


Citronella oil is present as a repellent in many sprays that contain other repellents, pyrethrins, and synergists. These formulations have insecticidal and repellent actions against biting insects and flies on cattle, dogs, horses, and pigs. The major constituent of citronella oil is citronellal (to which the information below applies).

Chemical Properties

colourless or light yellow liquid with characteristic

Chemical Properties

Sri Lanka (Ceylon) citronella oil is produced by steam distillation of fresh or partly dried leaves and stems of the grass species Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle – the so-called lenabatu – cultivated in Sri Lanka. It is a pale yellow to brownish liquid with a fresh, grassy, camphoraceous odor.
d2020 0.891–0.910; n20D 1.479–1.490; α20D ?25 ° to ?12 °; solubility: 1 vol in not more than 2 vol of 80% ethanol at 20 ℃; ester number (after acetylation): 157–200; carbonyl number: min. 18, corresponding to min. 5% of carbonyl compounds (calculated as citronellal).The content of citronellal by GC varies from 3% to 6%. Other typical constituents are borneol (4–7%), citronellol (3–8.5%), geraniol (15–23%), and methyl isoeugenol (7–11%).
Sri Lanka (Ceylon) oil is less valuable than Java oil and is used almost exclusively for perfuming toilet soaps, washing powders, and household products. Annual production is only ~25 t.

Chemical Properties

There are two essential oils: Ceylon citronella oil and Java citronella oil. Ceylon citronella oil is obtained by steam distillation of the partially dried herb known as the lanabatu variety, while the Java citronella oil is obtained by steam or water distillation of the freshly cut or partially dried herb known as the maha pengira variety. It differs from the Ceylon citronella oil in both composition and odor. The Ceylon type has a characteristic citronellal-like odor. Java-type oil has a pronounced aldehyde (rose, lemon-like) odor.

Physical properties

The Ceylon oil is a pale yellow to yellowish-brown liquid. The Java-type oil is a clear, mobile, light yellow to brownish liquid.


Found in the grasses of Cymbopogon Nardus (Rendle), Andropogon Nardus (L) and Andropogon Nardus Ceylon, de Jong (Fam. Gramineae).


Soap perfumery, manufacture of hydroxycitronellal, insect repellent.


Has both d- and l-isomers. C 9H17CHO.


By direct steam-distillation of the dried grass.

Essential oil composition

The main constituents of citronella oil are geraniol and citronellal

Citronella oil Preparation Products And Raw materials

Preparation Products


Citronella oilSupplierMore

Jiangxi Baolin Natural Spices Co.Ltd. Gold
13576833965 0796-8180428-
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Product Name:Citronella oil
Purity:99% Package:1KG;5KG;10KG;25KG;50KG;180KG
Jiangxi Baicao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Gold
15907062626 0796-8118889-8030
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Purity:99% Package:1KG/1.00;
Jiangxi Zhonghuan New Material Co., Ltd. Gold
13766287383 0796-8107286-
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Ji 'an trillion spice oil co. LTD Gold
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Product Name:Citronella oil
Purity:99 Package:1kg/ Remarks:10ton
Jishui County Yikang Natural Flavor Oil Refinery Gold
15179665672 0796-8128936
Products Intro:
Basic information Essential oils Chemical properties Uses plant origin Specificationstraits Function The standard of allowable maximum amount and residue Safety Related Supplier