Curcumin Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 183 °C
- Boiling point:
- 418.73°C (rough estimate)
- vapor density
- 13 (vs air)
- refractive index
- Flash point:
- storage temp.
- ethanol: 10 mg/mL
- Colour Index
- 8.09(at 25℃)
- PH Range
- Yellow (7.8) to red-brown (9.2)
- Water Solubility
- Slightly soluble (hot)
- Stable, but may be light sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- Major Application
- Cosmetics, drug-eluting stents, inhibition of formation of skin-wrinkles, treating alzheimer’s disease, skin diseases, coronary restenosis, diabetes, obesity, leukemia, neurofibromas, cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antiprostate cancer
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 458-37-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Curcumin (458-37-7)
- Hazard Codes
- Risk Statements
- Safety Statements
- UN1170 - class 3 - PG 2 - Ethanol, solution
- WGK Germany
- Hazard Note
- HS Code
- Hazardous Substances Data
- 458-37-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
- LD50 orally in Rabbit: > 5000 mg/kg
- Language:EnglishProvider:C.I. 75300
Curcumin Usage And Synthesis
orange crystalline powder
Several species of Curcuma exist: C. xanthorrhyza, C. domestica, C. zedoafia, C. caesia and C. amada. Although all these are aromatic plants, C. longa is the one used as a flavor ingredient. The plant is originally from southern Asia and is widespread throughout India, Malaysia, Ceylon and Japan. It is a perennial herb whose rhizome yields (like that of ginger, which it also resembles) climbing stalks with leaves only or with leaves and flowers. Reproduction occurs through the splitting of the rhizome, which is the only part used (dried rhizome as is or after previously boiling in water). Turmeric has a spicy, fresh odor reminiscent of sweet orange and ginger and a slightly pungent, bitter flavor.
For preparing curcuma paper, pH range 8-9. In the detection of boron.
A natural phenolic compound. Potent anti-tumor agent having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Induces apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibits phorbol ester-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Reported to inhibit production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Potent inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase and IκB kinase. Inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase. Easily penetrates into the cytoplasm of cells, accumulating in membranous structures such as plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope.
antiedemic, antiinflammatory, bile stimulant; antibacterial, antifungal, lipo/cyclooxygenase inhibitor
Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in at least two t
ChEBI: A beta-diketone that is methane in which two of the hydrogens are substituted by feruloyl groups. A natural dyestuff found in the root of Curcuma longa.
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in hot water .
Curcumin is sensitive to light and changes in pH. Curcumin may react with oxidizing materials.
Antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Downregulates expression of reactive-oxygen-generating enzymes (cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, iNOS), TNF α , IL-1, IL-6, PKC, EGFR, NF- κ B, I κ B kinase and more. Upregulates expression of PPAR γ , p53, Nrf2. Also displays antimicrobial, antidiabetic neuro- and cardioprotective properties in vivo .
It is a yellow-colored polyphenolic compound found in turmeric and used as a foodadditive. It has antitumor effects involved in mutagenesis, cell cycle regulation,apoptosis, oncogene expression, and metastasis. Thus it regulates the initiation,promotion, and progression of disease (Hosseini and Ghorbani 2015). Its mechanismof action is diversified and convoluted. 10 μM curcumin suppresses binding of theTPA response element (TRE) by c-Jun/activator protein-1 in NIH 3 T3 cells ofmouse fibroblasts. Both protein kinase C and ornithine decarboxylase are alsoinhibited by curcumin. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase leads tosuppression of arachidonic acid cascade (Murakami et al. 1996). Curcumin is animpressive blocker of the activation of NF-κB by inhibiting IκB kinase (IKK).Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, suppresses the cell growth, and inducesapoptosis in prostate, breast, acute myelogenous leukemia, and multiple myelomacancer cells. It may act against psoriasis by inhibition of phosphorylase kinaseenzyme (Aggarwal and Shishodia 2004). Curcumin downregulates the TNF-inducedNF-κB-regulated gene products involved in cellular proliferation (cyclin D1, COX-2,c-myc), antiapoptosis (IAP2, IAP1, Bcl-2, XIAP, Bcl-xL, TRAF1, Bf1–1/A1,Cflip), and metastasis (MMP-9, VEGF, ICAM-1). It also suppresses the activity ofIκBα kinase, κBα degradation, IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation,p65 phosphorylation, and p65 acetylation (Aggarwal et al. 2008). It upregulates the expression of p53, p16, p21, EGR1 (early growth response protein1), ERK(extracellular signal-regulated kinase), JNK(c-Jun-N-terminal kinase), ElK1, Bax,and caspase 3, caspase8, and caspase9 proteins and downregulates Bcl2, mTOR,p65, Bcl-xL, AKT, EGFR, cdc2, retinoblastoma protein (Prb), c-myc, and cyclin D1proteins (Singh et al. 2016b). It can dissociate raptor from mTOR and inhibit mTORcomplex1. The inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling results from thedephosphorylation dependent on the calyculin A-sensitive protein phosphatase.Further, it modulating effect on AP-1 in HT-29 human colon cancer cells was foundto be a dose-dependent increase of AP-1 luciferase activity (Ravindran et al. 2009).
Curcumin is a dynamic element of turmeric, an outstanding Indian zest that isobtained from the plant Curcuma longa dried roots. Curcumin hindered PDGFR-incitedproliferation of human hepatic myofibroblasts (Zheng and Chen 2006). Theactivated mechanism by curcumin in PDGF signaling is as follows: Curcumindecreases the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGFR-β and EGF-R; repressesthe action of ERK, JNK, and PI3/AKT; reduces cell growth; and induces apoptosisdose-dependently (Kunnumakkara et al. 2008). Moreover, curcumin interferes withPDGF signaling via relieving its inhibitory effect on PPARγ gene expression toreduce the cell growth; it also promotes the expression of PPARγ genes (Zhou et al.2007).
This compound is a yellow pigment produced by plants, mostly by those in theginger family (Zingiberaceae). Curcumin has enormous potential in terms of cancerprevention and treatment, and numerous studies and reviews described it as a potentantioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent (Aggarwal et al. 2003; Agrawal and Mishra2010). It inhibits biochemical activity, restraining overexpression of some signallingpathways and regulating the expression of tumour suppression genes (Cre?uet al. 2012). Temu kunci, or galangal (Boesenbergia pandurata), is a rhizome generallyused in cooking that can also be prepared to treat diarrhoea and mouth ulcers.It has been proven non-toxic to human skin fibroblast cells and offers protectiveeffects against colon cancer (Kirana et al. 2007). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) andginger (Zingiber officinale) are two plants that contain an abundance of curcuminand which have been investigated for their therapeutic properties. One piece ofresearch, for example, showed that ethanolic extract of turmeric showed anti-melanomaactivity against malignant melanomas (Danciu et al. 2015).
Crystallise curcumin from EtOH or acetic acid. [Beilstein 8 IV 3697.]
- CURCUMIN DIACETATE
- CURCUMIN 3,BISDEMETHOXY CURCUMIN
- CURCUMIN, [3H]-
- (E)-3,4-Dihydroxybenzylideneacetone, 97%
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