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Betaine hydrochloride

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Betaine hydrochloride Basic information

Product Name:
Betaine hydrochloride
CAS:
590-46-5
MF:
C5H12ClNO2
MW:
153.61
EINECS:
209-683-1
Mol File:
590-46-5.mol
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Betaine hydrochloride Chemical Properties

Melting point:
241-242 °C(lit.)
FEMA 
4223 | BETAINE
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form 
Powder or Crystals
color 
Colorless to white
PH
1 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
64.7 g/100 mL (25 ºC)
Merck 
14,1179
BRN 
3916181
InChIKey
HOPSCVCBEOCPJZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
590-46-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Betaine hydrochloride(590-46-5)
EPA Substance Registry System
Betaine hydrochloride (590-46-5)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Xi,Xn
Risk Statements 
36-36/37/38-20/21/22
Safety Statements 
26-39-24/25-36
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
BP3136000
3-10
Autoignition Temperature
400 °C
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29239000

MSDS

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Betaine hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis

Description

Betaine hydrochloride is a vitamin-like substance that is a source of hydrochloric acid and aids the production of stomach acid. Gastric acid also helps protect the gastrointestinal tract from harmful bacteria. A normal level of gastric acid in the stomach—100,000-1,000,000 times more acidic than water—is sufficient to destroy bacteria, but some people produce deficient amounts of stomach acid, a condition that may lead to bacterial and parasitic infections of the intestines.
Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin
One study showed that fasting people with normal gastric acid levels in the stomach had almost no bacteria in the small in- testine, while individuals with low levels of hydrochloric acid had some bacterial colonization in the stomach.Betaine hydrochloride is therefore recommended by some medical practitioners to sustain a healthy and normal production of stomach acid, especially to those that suffer from disorders such as allergies and asthma.
Betaine hydrochloride is a synthesized chemical, and is not obtained from any plant or animal source. Gastric acid is produced by stomach cells, and is not available from any food source. Occasionally, betaine (C5H11NO2 )is recommended to reduce blood levels of homocysteine, which is associated with heart disease. This form of betaine is different from betaine hydrochlo- ride, and is available only with a doctor’s prescription.

Chemical Properties

colorless to white crystals

Uses

Betaine hydrochloride can be used as antiarteriosclerotic, hypolipaemic, hepatoprotectant.

Uses

antiprotozoal, coccidiostat

Uses

Betaine is used as gastric acidifier.naturopaths have long held that low stomach acid is a widespread problem that interferes with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Betaine hydrochloride is one of the most common recommendations for this condi- tion. It helps make some minerals and other nutrients more absorbable, and may be especially helpful with nu- tritional supplements, which are often taken in tablets or capsules that may not be easily digested.

Indications

Betaine hydrochloride may be used as a lipotropic. Lipotropics aid in preventing the accumulation of fat in the liver, and usually help in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins. They may be used to help with weight loss.
Betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria, a condition in which an abnormally low amount of hydrochloric acid is in the stomach. It has been used in preparations for the treatment of liver disorders, hypokalaemia (abnormally low levels of potassium in the blood), CO2 production in double contrast radiography, and high homocysteine. Betaine hydrochloride has also been used to treat tic douloreux (a condition which involves spasmodic pain along the course of a facial nerve), cystinuria (a hereditary defect that results in recurrent kidney stone formation), and vitiligo (a condition that is characterized by milky-white patches on otherwise normal skin).

Biological Functions

Betaine hydrochloride and pepsin are naturally occurring gastric-juice components that render nutrients available for absorption and biological acitivity. Specifically, Betaine hydrochloride is an acidic form of betaine, which promotes optimal gastric lumen acidity and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of peptide bonds.
Betaine HCl is an excellent source of hydrochloric acid, also known as stomach acid. Supplementing with betaine HCl can be very beneficial, as insufficient production of hydrochloric acid is fairly widespread and often overlooked. Certain situations, such as normal aging, can decrease the body’s natural production of HCl.

Clinical Use

Betaine hydrochloride (pronounced beta-een) is the acid form of trimethyiglycine (TMG). It is available as an over-the-counter drug. The most common use of betaine hydrochloride is as digestive aid for people who suffer from low gastric acidity (hypochlorhydria), a common complaint in the elderly and a cause of chronic indigestion. Although such a practice is unwise. betaine hydrochloride can be of use in cases of overeating. Gourmands, in particular, suffer less discomfort after indulgences if they take betaine hydrochloride with their feasts.
Betaine hydrochloride is not only a digestive aid, but it also confers all the benefits of TMG (see next). However, betaine hydrochloride should not be used by anyone with chronic indigestion or heartburn without first seeking medical evaluation of the problem to make sure that there is not a more serious underlying condition. such as stomach ulcers. Betaine hydrochloride should be taken only with meals, and then only after first eating a few bites of food. The usual dose of betaine hydrochloride for hypochlorhydria is 500 milligrams. which is equivalent to 1.1 cubic centimeter (about a quarter teaspoon) of pharmaceutical Dilute Hydrochloric acid.

Side effects

Side effects are seldom seen, but as of 2013 betaine hydrochloride had not been through rigorous safety studies. Its safety, especially for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease, is not known.
In very high doses, betaine hydrochlorine has been associated with heartburn or burning of the stomach lining.

Drug interactions

People taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cortisone-like drugs, or other medications that could cause peptic ulcers should not take betaine hy- drochloride.

Purification Methods

Recrystallise the salt from EtOH. Its solubility at 25o is 65% in H2O, and 5% in EtOH. [Edsall J Am Chem Soc 66 1767 1943, Kuhn & Ruelius Chem Ber 83 420 1950, Beilstein 4 III 1127, IV 2369.]

Precautions

People with a history of ulcers, heartburn, or other gastrointestinal symptoms should see a nutritionally oriented doctor before taking betaine hydrochloride, and no one should take more than 10 grains (650 mg) without a physician's recommendation. Large amounts of betaine hydrochloride can burn the lining of the stomach. If a burning sensation is experienced, betaine hydrochloride should be immediately discontinued.

Betaine hydrochloride Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
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BeiJing Hwrk Chemicals Limted
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