Diclofenac sodium Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 0.781 g/cm3
- storage temp.
- -20°C Freezer
- H2O: 50 mg/mL
- 4(at 25℃)
- White solid
- Water Solubility
- Soluble in water to 50mg/ml.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 15307-79-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
- Language:EnglishProvider:2-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)amino]benzeneacetic acid sodium salt
Diclofenac sodium Usage And Synthesis
Diclofenac is a phenylacetic acid derivative belonging to the class of the non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It exhibits analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. Due to its poor solubility, the parenteral formulation of diclofenac sodium (Voltarol ampoules) currently available in Europe contains the solvents propylene glycol and benzyl alcohol that allows intramuscular and intravenous administration. Diclofenac sodium has long been used to treat acute pain and inflammation, and is effective in various acute forms of pain.
Mechanisms of action
Putative mechanisms of action of diclofenac may include inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, inhibition of phospholipase A2, modulation of free arachidonic acid levels, stimulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels via the L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway and centrally mediated and neuropathic mechanisms. Other emerging mechanisms of action may include inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-c, reduction in plasma and synovial substance P and interleukin-6 levels, inhibition of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor and inhibition of acid-sensing ion channels.
Clinical trials have demonstrated the analgesic efficacy of diclofenac sodium in terms of relieving moderate to severe postoperative pain in patients undergoing dental surgery or minor orthopaedic surgery. Subcutaneous diclofenac sodium also effectively relieved moderate to severe neuropathic pain, related to cancer or not. Diclofenac sodium was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with injection-site reactions among the most commonly reported adverse events.
Off-White Crystalline Solid
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound an decycloxygenase (COX) inhibitor.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor
An inhibitor of Cox-1 and Cox-2.
ChEBI: The sodium salt of diclofenac.
Four grams of N-chloroacetyl-N-phenyl-2,6-dichloroaniline and 4 grams of
aluminum chloride are well mixed together and heated for 2 hours at 160°C.
The melt is cooled and poured onto about 50 grams of ice while it is still
warm. The oil which separates is dissolved in 50 ml of chloroform, the
chloroform solution is washed with 10 ml of water, dried over sodium sulfate
and concentrated under 11 torr. The residue is distilled. The 1-(2,6-
dichlorophenyl)-2-indolinone melts at 126°-127°C.
A solution of 186 grams of 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-indolinone in 660 ml of ethanol and 660 ml of 2 N sodium hydroxide solution is refluxed for 4 hours. The solution is then cooled and left to stand for 4 hours at 0°-5°C. The crystals which form are filtered off and recrystallized from water. The sodium salt of 2-(2,6-dichloroanilino)-phenylacetic acid melts at 283°-285°C. The yield is 97% of theoretical, according to US Patent 3,558,690.
Solaraze (Bioglan); Voltaren (Novartis);Aflamin;Alfamin;Allvoran;Artren;Blesin;B-voltaren;Cgp 9194;Chlorgyl;Ct-diclo;Dichloronic;Diclo attritin;Diclo spondril;Diclo-attritin;Diclo-burg;Diclo-phlohont;Diclo-puren;Diclo-recip;Dicloreum;Diclo-spondyril;Diclo-wolf;Dolobasan;Dolotrem;Doragon;Duravolten;Duvavotten;Feloran;Fenoflam;Flogofenac;Flogogenac;Forgenac;Inflamac;Klast;Monoflam;Myogit;Neuro-effekton;Neurofenac;Neuro-voltaren;Neviodin;Olfen;Panamor;Rewodina;Rheumalgen;Rheumavincin-n;Seecoren;Shignol;Silino;Sofarin;Thicataren;Toryxil;Tsudomin;Voltarene.
World Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization currently has no information to suggest that diclofenac is less safe than other widely available non-steroidal antiinflammatory substances of this type, or that children are particularly liable to react adversely. It is registered in many countries in several dosage forms, including a 12.5 mg suppository indicated for juvenile arthritis.
Diclofenac sodium is indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
Veterinary Drugs and Treatments
The equine topical cream (Surpass?) is labeled for the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in tarsal, carpal, metacarpophalangeal, metarsophalangeal, and proximal interphalangeal (hock, knee, fetlock, pastern) joints for use up to 10 days duration. While, theoretically, diclofenac could be used systemically (orally) in other veterinary species, there are approved and safer alternatives.
- DICLOFENAC METHYL ESTER
- 6-Aminocaproic acid
- Phenylphosphonic dichloride
- Sodium acetate
- 8-CHLOROADENOSINE-3',5'-CYCLIC MONOPHOSPHOROTHIOATE, RP-ISOMER SODIUM SALT
- Anthranilic acid
- 4-Aminobenzoic acid
- Sodium bicarbonate
- Sodium hydroxide
- Sulfanilic acid
- Sodium benzoate
- Sodium chloride
- Sodium chlorite
- Sodium citrate
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