DIELDRIN Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 143-144 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 496.11°C (rough estimate)
- 1.75 g/cm3
- vapor density
- 13.2 (vs air)
- vapor pressure
- 30.7 and 58.5 at 20 and 25 °C, respectively (gas saturation-GC, Grayson and Fosbraey, 1982)
- refractive index
- 1.5550 (estimate)
- Flash point:
- 2 °C
- storage temp.
- APPROX 4°C
- Soluble in ethanol and benzene (Weast, 1986)
- Water Solubility
- 195ug/L(25 ºC)
- Henry's Law Constant
- 27.6 at 5 °C, 63.2 at 15 °C, 82.9 at 20 °C, 97.7 at 25 °C, 217 at 35 °C:in 3% NaCl solution: 66.1 at 5 °C, 158 at 15 °C, 395 at 25 °C, 507 at 35 °C (gas stripping-GC, Cetin et al., 2006)
- Exposure limits
- NIOSH REL: TWA 0.25 mg/m3, IDLH 50 mg/m3; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.25 mg/m3; ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.25 mg/m3.
- Stable. Breakdown product of aldrin in the environment. Incompatible with acids, active metals and strong oxidizing agents.
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Dieldrin (60-57-1)
- Hazard Codes
- Risk Statements
- Safety Statements
- UN 2811 6.1/PG 1
- WGK Germany
- HS Code
- LD50 orally in rats: 46 mg/kg (Gaines)
DIELDRIN Usage And Synthesis
white or light brown powder or crystals
Dieldrin is a colorless to light tan solid with a mild chemical odor. The Odor Threshold in water is 0.04 mg/L
White crystals to pale tan flakes with an odorless to mild chemical odor. Odor threshold concentration is 41 μg/L (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992).
Dieldrin was first used by cotton growers in the 1950s; it has
subsequently been used on other crops for the control of
vectorborne diseases and for mothproofing woolen goods.
Dieldrin, as well as other cyclodiene insecticides, is uniquely
suited for the control of termites. In 1974, the U.S. registration
of products containing aldrin and dieldrin was canceled.
As a result of worldwide concerns regarding the potential
human health and environmental impacts of dieldrin, its
manufacture ceased by the early 1990s.
Occupational exposures have occurred among all groups that have been involved in the manufacture or handling of the compound, and in the spraying of dieldrin suspensions and emulsions. Overexposure, resulting in acute intoxication, occurred primarily in the early days of dieldrin, aldrin, and endrin manufacture and in spraying operations with these compounds in Kenya, India, Iran, and other malariainfested countries.
Stereoisomer of Endrin. Used as an insecticide. Potential occupational carcinogen.
Formerly as insecticide.
DIELDRIN is a light-tan flaked solid. DIELDRIN is insoluble in water. DIELDRIN is toxic by inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. DIELDRIN can penetrate intact skin. DIELDRIN is used as an insecticide.
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
DIELDRIN is sensitive to mineral acids, acid catalysts, acid oxidizing agents and active metals. DIELDRIN reacts with phenols. DIELDRIN is also slightly corrosive to metals. DIELDRIN may react vigorously with strong oxidizers such as chlorine and permanganates and strong acids such as sulfuric or nitric.
Inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact causes irritability, convulsions and/or coma, nausea, vomiting, headache, fainting, tremors. Contact with eyes causes irritation.
Highly toxic; toxic symptoms similar to theseof aldrin; affects central nervous system,liver, kidneys, and skin; causes headache,dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tremor, ataxia,clonic and tonic convulsions, and respiratoryfailure; oral LD50 value (mice): 38 mg/kg;causes liver cancers in animals; inadequateevidence in humans; RCRA Waste Number P037.
Exposure to many organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increasedrisk of Parkinson’s disease. In this context,dieldrin has been the most implicated ofall. Dieldrin has been found, during postmortem, in the brain tissues of humanswith Parkinson’s disease, indicating that itpromotes dopaminergic degeneration. Various neurotoxic studies following exposure todieldrin have been conducted in both cellcultures and animal models. Such studiesindicated that dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity via mechanisms associated with dopaminergic degeneration including oxidative stress,mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and apoptosis. Such effects cancause neuronal cell death and neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease.Kanthasamy et al. (2005) have revieweddieldrin-induced neurotoxicity..
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating hydrogen chloride fumes may form in fire.
Insecticide: Manufacture in the United States prohibited since 1974. In 1987, EPA banned all uses. Banned for use in EU (also for export) All uses of dieldrin (and Aldrin) were canceled in 1974, except for subsurface ground insertion for termite control, dipping of non-food roots and tops, and moth-proofing by manufacturing processes in a closed system (EPA 1974). In 1987, these final three uses were voluntarily canceled by the sole manufacturer. Currently there are more than 25 global suppliers
ALVIT®; BELCO®[C]; COMPOUND 497®; D-31®; DIELDREX®; DIELDRITE®; ILLOXOL®; KILLGERM DETHLAC INSECTICIDAL LAQUER®; OCTALOX®; OXRALOX®; PANORAM®; PANORAM D-31®; PRENTOX®[C]; QUINTOX®; ROYAL BRAND®[C]; SD 3417®
A human poison by ingestion and possibly other routes. Poison experimentally by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive data. Absorbed readily through the skin and by other routes. It is a central nervous system stimulant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. An insecticide. Dieldrin is considerably more toxic than DDT by ingestion and skin contact. Dieldrin or its derivatives may accumulate in the body from chronic low dosages. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also ALDRIN.
Aldrin belongs to the group of cyclodiene insecticides. They are a subgroup of the chlorinated cyclic hydrocarbon insecticides which include DDT, BHC, etc. They were manufactured in the United States by Shell Chemical Co. until the United States Environmental Protection Agency prohibited their manufacture in 1974 under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The primary use of the chemicals in the past was for control of corn pests, although they were also used by the citrus industry. Dieldrin’s persistence in the environment is due to its extremely low volatility (i.e., a vapor pressure of 1.78 3 1027 mmHg @ 20°C), and low solubility in water (186 μg/L @ 25°C29°C). In addition, dieldrin is extremely apolar, resulting in a high affinity for fat which accounts for its retention in animal fats, plant waxes; andother such organic matter in the environment. The fat solubility of dieldrin results in the progressive accumulation in the food chain which may result in a concentration in an organism which would exceed the lethal limit for a consumer.
Biological. Identified metabolites of dieldrin from solution cultures containing Pseudomonas sp. in soils include aldrin and dihydroxydihydroaldrin. Other unidentified byproducts included a ketone, an aldehyde and an acid (Matsumura et al., 1968; Kearney and Kaufman, 1976). A pure culture of the marine alga, namely Dunaliella sp., degraded dieldrin to photodieldrin and an unknown metabolite at yields of 8.5 and 3.2%, respectively.
Photodieldrin and the diol were also identified as metabolites in field-collected samples of marine water, sediments and associated biological materials (Patil et al., 1972). At least 10 different types of bacteria comprising a mixed anaerobic population
Chacko et al. (1966) reported that cultures of six actinomycetes (Norcardia sp., Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces antibioticus, Streptomyces auerofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamoneus, Streptomyces viridochromogenes) and 8 fungi had no effect on the degradati
The percentage of dieldrin remaining in a Congaree sandy loam soil after 7 years was 50% (Nash and Woolson, 1967). Soil. Dieldrin is very persistent in soil under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (Castro and Yoshida, 1971; Sanborn and Yu, 1973). Reported half-lives in soil ranged from 175 days to 3 years (Howard et al., 1991).75 days to 3 years (Howard et al., 1991). Groundwater. According to the U.S. EPA (1986) dieldrin has a high potential to leach to groundwater.
Photolytic. Photolysis of an aqueous solution by sunlight for 3 months resulted in a 70% yield of photodieldrin (Henderson and Crosby, 1968). A solid ?lm of dieldrin exposed to sunlight for 2 months resulted in a 25% yield of photodieldrin (Benso
UN2761 Organochlorine pesticides, solid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
Incompatible with strong acids: concentrated mineral acids; acid catalysts; phenols, strong oxidizers, active metals; like sodium, potassium, magnesium, and zinc. Keep away from copper, iron, and their salts.
Incineration (816C, 0.5 second minimum for primary combustion; 1760C, 1.0 second for secondary combustion) with adequate scrubbing and ash disposal facilities. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≧100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal
DIELDRIN Preparation Products And Raw materials