PENTACHLOROBENZENE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 84-87 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 275-277 °C(lit.)
- 1.609 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor pressure
- 6 x 10-3 mmHg at 20–30 °C (quoted, Mercer et al., 1990)
- refractive index
- 1.5522 (estimate)
- storage temp.
- Very soluble in ether (Sax and Lewis, 1987)
- White needles
- Water Solubility
- 1.332mg/L(25 ºC)
- Henry's Law Constant
- 5.14 at 25 °C (continuous flow sparger, Sproule et al., 1991)
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 608-93-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Pentachlorobenzene (608-93-5)
PENTACHLOROBENZENE Usage And Synthesis
Pentachlorobenzene is a colorless crystalline solid. Pleasant aroma.
It was used to prepare tetrachlorobenzene by photolysis.
ChEBI: A member of the class of pentachlorobenzenes that is benzene in which five of the hydrogens are replaced by chlorines. Now classed as a persistent organic pollutant under the Stockholm Convention.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 38, p. 2928, 1973 DOI: 10.1021/jo00957a002
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
PENTACHLOROBENZENE is relatively unreactive. May be incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also may be incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides.
Flash point data for PENTACHLOROBENZENE are not available but PENTACHLOROBENZENE is probably non-flammable.
Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, AROMATIC
Pentachlorobenzene is used primarily as a precursor in the synthesis of the fungicide pentachloronitrobenzene, and as a flame retardant. Drug/ Therapeutic Agent; Fungicide; bactericide; wood preservative; industrial Insecticides.
Pentachlorobenzene may enter the environment from leaking dielectric fluids containing this compound. Pentachlorobenzene may be present as an undesirable by-product in the chemical manufacture of hexachlorobenzene, pentachloronitrobenzene, tetrachloroenzenes, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloroethane (U.S. EPA, 1980).
Biological. In activated sludge, <0.1% mineralized to carbon dioxide after 5 days
(Freitag et al., 1985). From the first-order biotic and abiotic rate constants of pentachlorobenzene in estuarine water and sediment/water systems, the estimated biodegradation
half-lives were 4.6–6.5 and 6.0–7.6 days, respectively (Walker et al., 1988)
Photolytic. UV irradiation (λ = 2537 ?) of pentachlorobenzene in a hexane solution for 3 hours produced a 50% yield of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene and a 13% yield of 1,2,3,5- tetrachlorobenzene (Crosby and Hamadmad, 1971). Irradiation (λ ≥285 nm)
A carbon dioxide yield of 2.0% was achieved when pentachlorobenzene adsorbed on silica gel was irradiated with light (λ >290 nm) for 17 hours (Freitag et al., 1985).
The experimental first-order decay rate for pentachlorobenzene in an aqueous solution containing a nonionic surfactant micelle (Brij 58, a polyoxyethylene cetyl ether) and illuminated by a photoreactor equipped with 253.7-nm monochromatic UV lamps, is 1.47 × 10–2/sec. The corresponding half-life is 47 seconds. Photoproducts reported include, all
tetra-, tri- and dichlorobenzenes, chlorobenzene, benzene, phenol, hydrogen and chloride ions (Chu and Jafvert, 1994)
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
Polychlorinated hydrocarbons Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, aluminum, liquid oxygen; potassium, sodium.
Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.
PENTACHLOROBENZENE Preparation Products And Raw materials
- CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS MIXTURE
- PENTACHLOROPHENYL METHACRYLATE
- L-PYROGLUTAMIC ACID PENTACHLOROPHENYL ESTER
- HEXACHLOROBENZENE 13C6
- PENTACHLOROPHENYL DICHLOROACETATE
- ACIDS MIXTURE
- PENTACHLOROPHENOL DODECANOATE
- PENTACHLOROPHENYL ACRYLATE
- 2,3,4,5,6-PENTACHLORO(TRIFLUOROMETHYL) BENZENE
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