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Aluminium chloride

Basic information Description Uses Preparation Reaction Safety Related Supplier

Aluminium chloride Basic information

Product Name:
Aluminium chloride
CAS:
7446-70-0
MF:
AlCl3
MW:
133.34
EINECS:
231-208-1
Mol File:
7446-70-0.mol
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Aluminium chloride Chemical Properties

Melting point:
194 °C
Boiling point:
180°C
Density 
2.44
vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 100 °C)
Flash point:
88 °C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: soluble
form 
powder
color 
Yellow to gray
Specific Gravity
2.44
Odor
Hydrogen chloride odor detectable when exposed to moist air
PH
2.4 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
reacts
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
14,337
Stability:
Stable, but reacts violently with water. Prolonged storage may lead to pressure build-up - vent container periodically. Incompatible with alcohols and a variety of other materials (see complete MSDS sheet for full list).
InChIKey
VSCWAEJMTAWNJL-UHFFFAOYSA-K
CAS DataBase Reference
7446-70-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Aluminum trichloride(7446-70-0)
EPA Substance Registry System
Aluminum chloride (7446-70-0)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
C,Xi,T
Risk Statements 
36/38-34-62-51/53-48/23/24-40-23/24/25-14-48/25-48/20-52-36/37/38-52/53-48/23/24/25-60
Safety Statements 
26-45-28-7/8-36/37/39-61-23-28A-53
RIDADR 
UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
BD0525000
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
8
PackingGroup 
II
HS Code 
28273200
Hazardous Substances Data
7446-70-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 oral (rat) 3730 mg/kg
LD50 skin (rabbit) >2 g/kg
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 2 mg(Al)/m3

MSDS

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Aluminium chloride Usage And Synthesis

Description

White or light-yellow crystalline solid (or amorphous solid depending on the method of production); odor of HCl; hygroscopic; melts at 190°C at 2.5 atm; sublimes at 181.2°C; density 2.44 g/cm3 at 25°C; decomposes in water evolving heat; soluble in HCl; soluble in many organic solvents, including absolute ethanol, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and ether; slightly soluble in benzene.
Aluminum chloride reacts vigorously with water and fumes in air. It is used as a catalyst in cracking petroleum and in organic synthesis.

Uses

Aluminum chloride has extensive commercial applications. It is used primarily in the electrolytic production of aluminum. Another major use involves its catalytic applications in many organic reactions, including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, polymerization, isomerization, hydrocracking, oxidation, decarboxylation, and dehydrogenation. It is also used in the production of rare earth chlorides, electroplating of aluminum and in many metal finishing and metallurgical operations.

Preparation

Aluminum chloride is made by chlorination of molten aluminum at temperatures between 650 to 750°C;
2 Al + 3Cl2→ 2AlCl3
or by chlorination of alumina (bauxite or clay) at 800°C in the presence of a reducing agent, such as carbon or CO. It can be prepared by similar high temperature chlorination of bauxite in the presence of a chlorinated organic reductant such as CCl4.
A pelletized mixture of clay, lignite and a small amount of NaCl is chlorinated at 900°C, producing gaseous AlCl3 (Toth process). Alternatively, alumina is mixed with about 20% by weight carbon and a small amount of sodium salt. The mixture is chlorinated at 600°C (Bayer process).
In the laboratory, anhydrous AlCl3 can be prepared by heating the metal with dry HCl gas at 150°C. The product sublimes and deposits in the cool air condenser. Unreacted HCl is vented out.

Reaction

Reacts with calcium and magnesium hydrides in tetrahydrofuran forming tetrahydro aluminates, Ca(AlH4)2; reacts with hydrides of alkali metals in ether forming aluminum hydride;
Hydrolyzes in chilled, dilute HCl forming aluminum chloride hexahydrate, AlCl3⋅6H2O; reacts violently with water, evolving HCl,
AlCl3 + H2O ——› Al(OH)3 + HCl ↑

Chemical Properties

White or yellowish crystals. The vapor consists of double molecules Al 2 Cl 6 . Soluble in water.

Chemical Properties

Aluminum chloride is a noncombustible but highly reactive whitish-gray, yellow, or green powder or liquid. Strong, acidic, irritating odor like hydrochloric acid

Uses

Astringent (topical).

Uses

A yellowish-white crystalline or granular powder made by passing chlorine gas over alumina in a heated state and collecting the product by sublimation. Aluminum chloride was occasionally used in gold and platinum toning baths.

Uses

Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in many organic reactions.

Definition

aluminium chloride: A whitishsolid, AlCl3, which fumes in moist airand reacts violently with water (togive hydrogen chloride). It is knownas the anhydrous salt (hexagonal; r.d.2.44 (fused solid); m.p. 190°C (2.5atm.); sublimes at 178°C) or the hexahydrateAlCl3.6H2O (rhombic; r.d.2.398; loses water at 100°C), both ofwhich are deliquescent. Aluminiumchloride may be prepared by passinghydrogen chloride or chlorine overhot aluminium or (industrially) bypassing chlorine over heated aluminiumoxide and carbon. The chlorideion is polarized by the smallpositive aluminium ion and thebonding in the solid is intermediatebetween covalent and ionic. In theliquid and vapour phases dimer moleculesexist, Al2Cl6, in which thereare chlorine bridges making coordinatebonds to aluminium atoms (seeformula). The AlCl3 molecule can alsoform compounds with other moleculesthat donate pairs of electrons(e.g. amines or hydrogen sulphide);i.e. it acts as a Lewis acid. At hightemperatures the Al2Cl6 molecules inthe vapour dissociate to (planar)AlCl3 molecules. Aluminium chlorideis used commercially as a catalyst inthe cracking of oils. It is also a catalystin certain other organic reactions,especially the Friedel–Craftsreaction.

Reactivity Profile

ALUMINUM CHLORIDE behaves as an acidic salt. Self-reactive. After long storage in closed containers, explosions often occur upon opening [Chem. Abst. 41:6723d 1947]. Can cause ethylene(also other alkenes) to polymerize violently [J. Inst. Pet. 33:254 1947]. Causes ethylene oxide to rearrange and polymerize, liberating heat [J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 68:179 1949]. Can catalyze violent polymerization of allyl chloride [Ventrone 1971]. Addition to nitrobenzene containing about 5% phenol caused a violent explosion [Chem. Eng. News 31:4915 1953]. Mixtures with nitromethane may explode when organic matter is present [Chem. Eng. News 26:2257 1948].

Hazard

Powerful irritant to tissue; moderately toxic by ingestion. Reacts violently with water, evolving hydrogen chloride gas.

Health Hazard

Contact with the skin or eyes in the presence of moisture causes thermal and acid burns.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Reacts violently with water used in extinguishing adjacent fires

Flammability and Explosibility

Aluminum chloride is not flammable but reacts violently with water, so fires involving this substance should be extinguished with carbon dioxide or dry chemicals. Toxic fumes (HCl and reaction products) can be released during fires.

Industrial uses

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is a volatile solid which sublimes at 458 K. The vapour formed on sublimation consists of an equilibrium mixture of monomers (AlCl3) and dimers (Al2Cl6). It is used to prepare the powerful and versatile reducing agent lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (LiAlH4). Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) act as Lewis acids to a wide range of electron-pair donors, and this has led to their widespread use as catalysts. In the important Friedel-Crafts acylation, AlCl3 is used as a strong Lewis acid catalyst in order to achieve the acylation of an aromatic ring.

Industrial uses

Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) act as Lewis acids to a wide range of electron-pair donors, and this has led to their widespread use as catalysts. In the important Friedel–Crafts acylation, AlCl3 is used as a strong Lewis acid catalyst in order to achieve the acylation of an aromatic ring.

Industrial uses

Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 is a white, crystalline salt obtained by reacting ammonia and sulfuric acid. This compound is used as a depressant for sphalerite during flotation of complex copper–lead–zinc ores. In plant practice, it is used in a number of concentrators in Mexico, specifically the San Martin operation, treating Cu–Pb–Zn ores containing pyrrhotite. Ammonium sulfate also improves floatability of copper and lead using xanthate collector at pH 7.5–9.0.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by ingestion. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. The dust is an irritant by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. Highly exothermic polymerization reactions with alkenes. Incompatible with nitrobenaenes or nitrobenzene + phenol. Highly exothermic reaction with water or steam produces toxic fumes of HCl. See also ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, CHLORIDES, and HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

Potential Exposure

It is used as ethylbenzene catalyst, dyestuff intermediate, and detergent alkylate; in making other chemicals and dyes, astringents, deodorants, in the petroleum refining, and the rubber industries

storage

work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood, and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times when handling AlCl3. Aluminum chloride should be stored in sealed containers under an inert atmosphere in a cool, dry place. Care should be taken in opening containers of this compound because of the possibility of the buildup of HCl vapor from hydrolysis with traces of moisture.

Shipping

UN1726 Aluminum chloride, anhydrous, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN2581 Aluminum chloride solution, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material

Purification Methods

Sublime it several times in an all-glass system under nitrogen at 30-50mm pressure. It has also been sublimed in a stream of dry HCl and has been subjected to a preliminary sublimation through a section of granular aluminium metal [for manipulative details see Jensen J Am Chem Soc 79 1226 1957]. It fumes in moist air.

Incompatibilities

A strong reducing agent. Contact with air or water forms hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride gas. Reaction with water may be violent. Water, alcohol, and alkenes can cause polymerization. Incompatible with nitrobenzene, organic material, and bases. Attacks metal in presence of moisture, forming flammable hydrogen gas.

Waste Disposal

May be sprayed with aqueous ammonia in the presence of ice and, when reaction is complete, flushed down drain with running water.

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Aluminium chlorideSupplierMore

Alfa Aesar Gold
Tel:
400-610-6006; 021-67582000
Email:
saleschina@alfa-asia.com
Shanghai TongYuan Chemical Co., Ltd. Gold
Tel:
021-69182866-
Email:
tongyuanchem@126.com
Mei Lan Industrial (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. Gold
Tel:
021-61500788
Email:
wouchina@126.com
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD Gold
Tel:
021-20337333/400-620-6333
Email:
sale@aladdin-e.com
Langfang pengcai fine chemical co., ltd. Gold
Tel:
0316-2132008- ;010-87741387- ;010-87741387-
Email:
13671393780@163.com;13671393780@163.com;13671393780@163.com
Basic information Description Uses Preparation Reaction Safety Related Supplier