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Potassium perchlorate

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Potassium perchlorate Basic information

Product Name:
Potassium perchlorate
CAS:
7778-74-7
MF:
ClKO4
MW:
138.55
EINECS:
231-912-9
Mol File:
7778-74-7.mol
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Potassium perchlorate Chemical Properties

Melting point:
400 °C (dec.)(lit.)
Density 
2.52
storage temp. 
Store at +5°C to +30°C.
solubility 
H2O: 0.1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form 
Powder
Specific Gravity
2.52
color 
Clear colorless to slightly yellow
PH
5.0 (10g/l, H2O, 25℃)
Water Solubility 
17 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,7653
Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
pKsp: 1.98
Stability:
Stable. Strong oxidiser - contact with combustible materials may lead to fire or explosion. Incompatible with reducing agents, organic materials. Forms explosive mixtures with alcohols.
CAS DataBase Reference
7778-74-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Potassium perchlorate(7778-74-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
Perchloric acid, potassium salt (1:1) (7778-74-7)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
O,Xn
Risk Statements 
9-22
Safety Statements 
13-22-27
RIDADR 
UN 1489 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
SC9700000
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
2829 90 10
HazardClass 
5.1
PackingGroup 
II
Hazardous Substances Data
7778-74-7(Hazardous Substances Data)

MSDS

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Potassium perchlorate Usage And Synthesis

Chemical Properties

Potassium perchlorate occurs as a colorless crystal or crystalline powder. It decomposes at 400℃ and may also decompose by organic matter, oxidizable substances and on concussion. Potassium perchlorate is soluble in 65 parts cold water, 15 parts boiling water and is practically insoluble in alcohol.
Potassium perchlorate

Uses

In explosives, pyrotechnics and photography, in analytical chemistry.

Indications

The perchlorate ion of potassium perchlorate, KClO4, is a competitive inhibitor of thyroidal I- transport via the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS).This drug can cause fatal aplastic anemia and gastric ulcers and is now rarely used. If administered with careful supervision, in limited low doses and for only brief periods, serious toxic effects can be avoided. The compound is especially effective in treating iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, which may occur, for example, in patients treated with the antiarrhythmic compound amiodarone. Perchlorate ion can also be used in a diagnostic test of I- incorporation into Tg, the so-called perchlorate discharge test.

Preparation

The potassium perchlorate can be separated from the potassium chloride because it is less soluble in water; however, the preferred production route involves anodic oxidation of cold chloride solutions using a high voltage and high current density. The alkali perchlorates can also be prepared by neutralizing perchloric acid with alkali carbonates, or by metathesis between ammonium perchlorate and alkali sulphates.

General Description

A white crystalline solid. Forms explosive mixtures wilh certain combustible materials. Difficult to burn, but will accelerate burning of combustible materials. Prolonged exposure to fire or heat may result in an explosion. Used in explosives, pyrotechnics, photography.

Air & Water Reactions

Slight solubility in water (7.55 mg /mL of cold water).

Reactivity Profile

Potassium perchlorate is a strong oxidizing agent. Explosively decomposes at or over 400°C. Decomposed by organic matter (reducible material) and on concussion [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Mixture with powdered magnesium is a friction-sensitive explosive [Safety Eng. Reports 1947]. Incompatible with reducing agents, such as: metal powders aluminum, titanium, barium, magnesium, nickel, and various metal hydrides, sulfur.

Hazard

Fire risk in contact with organic materials, strong oxidizing agent. Strong irritant.

Health Hazard

Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Fire Hazard

These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

Safety Profile

An experimental teratogen. A powerful oxidizer. Severe irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Has been implicated in aplastic anemia. Absorption can cause methemoglobinemia and hdney injury. It has been involved in many industrial explosions. Explodes on contact with aluminum + barium nitrate + potassium nitrate + water. Forms explosive mixtures with aluminum powder + titanium dioxide, ethylene glycol (240°C), cotton lint (245°C), furfural (27O°C), lactose, metal powders (e.g., aluminum, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium), sulfur, titanium hydride. Reaction with ethanol + heat forms the explosive ethyl perchlorate. Violent reaction or igmtion under the proper conditions with aluminum + aluminum fluoride, barium chromate + tungsten or titanium, boron + magnesium + silicone rubber, ferrocenium lammine- tetrahs(thiocyanat0-N) chromate(1-), potassium hexacyanocobaltate(3-), Al + Mg, charcoal, F2, Ni + Ti, reducing agents. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of K2O and Cl-. See also PERCHLORATES.

Purification Methods

It crystallises from boiling water (5mL/g) on cooling. Dry it under vacuum at 105o.

Potassium perchlorate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

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