Potassium perchlorate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 400 °C (dec.)(lit.)
- storage temp.
- Store at +5°C to +30°C.
- H2O: 0.1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- Specific Gravity
- Clear colorless to slightly yellow
- 5.0 (10g/l, H2O, 25℃)
- Water Solubility
- 17 g/L (20 ºC)
- Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
- pKsp: 1.98
- Stable. Strong oxidiser - contact with combustible materials may lead to fire or explosion. Incompatible with reducing agents, organic materials. Forms explosive mixtures with alcohols.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 7778-74-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- Potassium perchlorate(7778-74-7)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Perchloric acid, potassium salt (1:1) (7778-74-7)
Potassium perchlorate Usage And Synthesis
Potassium perchlorate occurs as a colorless crystal or crystalline powder. It decomposes at 400℃ and may also decompose by organic matter, oxidizable substances and on concussion. Potassium perchlorate is soluble in 65 parts cold water, 15 parts boiling water and is practically insoluble in alcohol.
In explosives, pyrotechnics and photography, in analytical chemistry.
The perchlorate ion of potassium perchlorate, KClO4, is a competitive inhibitor of thyroidal I- transport via the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS).This drug can cause fatal aplastic anemia and gastric ulcers and is now rarely used. If administered with careful supervision, in limited low doses and for only brief periods, serious toxic effects can be avoided. The compound is especially effective in treating iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, which may occur, for example, in patients treated with the antiarrhythmic compound amiodarone. Perchlorate ion can also be used in a diagnostic test of I- incorporation into Tg, the so-called perchlorate discharge test.
The potassium perchlorate can be separated from the potassium chloride because it is less soluble in water; however, the preferred production route involves anodic oxidation of cold chloride solutions using a high voltage and high current density. The alkali perchlorates can also be prepared by neutralizing perchloric acid with alkali carbonates, or by metathesis between ammonium perchlorate and alkali sulphates.
A white crystalline solid. Forms explosive mixtures wilh certain combustible materials. Difficult to burn, but will accelerate burning of combustible materials. Prolonged exposure to fire or heat may result in an explosion. Used in explosives, pyrotechnics, photography.
Air & Water Reactions
Slight solubility in water (7.55 mg /mL of cold water).
Potassium perchlorate is a strong oxidizing agent. Explosively decomposes at or over 400°C. Decomposed by organic matter (reducible material) and on concussion [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Mixture with powdered magnesium is a friction-sensitive explosive [Safety Eng. Reports 1947]. Incompatible with reducing agents, such as: metal powders aluminum, titanium, barium, magnesium, nickel, and various metal hydrides, sulfur.
Fire risk in contact with organic materials, strong oxidizing agent. Strong irritant.
Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
An experimental teratogen. A powerful oxidizer. Severe irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Has been implicated in aplastic anemia. Absorption can cause methemoglobinemia and hdney injury. It has been involved in many industrial explosions. Explodes on contact with aluminum + barium nitrate + potassium nitrate + water. Forms explosive mixtures with aluminum powder + titanium dioxide, ethylene glycol (240°C), cotton lint (245°C), furfural (27O°C), lactose, metal powders (e.g., aluminum, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium), sulfur, titanium hydride. Reaction with ethanol + heat forms the explosive ethyl perchlorate. Violent reaction or igmtion under the proper conditions with aluminum + aluminum fluoride, barium chromate + tungsten or titanium, boron + magnesium + silicone rubber, ferrocenium lammine- tetrahs(thiocyanat0-N) chromate(1-), potassium hexacyanocobaltate(3-), Al + Mg, charcoal, F2, Ni + Ti, reducing agents. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of K2O and Cl-. See also PERCHLORATES.
It crystallises from boiling water (5mL/g) on cooling. Dry it under vacuum at 105o.
- Potassium sulfate
- Potassium sorbate
- Potassium nitrate
- CHLORIC ACID
- Sodium chlorate
- Chlorine dioxide
- Potassium hydroxide
- hypochlorous acid
- PERCHLORIC ACID
- Chlorite-group minerals
- Potassium perchlorate
- Potassium Acetate
- Losartan potassium
- Potassium persulfate
- Potassium chloride
- Potassium chlorate
- POTASSIUM HYPOCHLORITE