Ammonium persulfate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 120 °C
- vapor density
- 7.9 (vs air)
- refractive index
- storage temp.
- Store at RT.
- H2O: soluble
- White to yellow
- Specific Gravity
- 1.0-2.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
- PH Range
- 1 - 2
- Water Solubility
- 582 g/L (20 ºC) decomposes
- Moisture Sensitive
- Stable. Oxidizing. May ignite combustible material. Incompatible with bases, combustible material, hydrogen peroxide, peroxy compounds, silver compounds, zinc. May decompose upon exposure to water or moist air.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 7727-54-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Ammonium peroxydisulfate (7727-54-0)
Ammonium persulfate Usage And Synthesis
Ammonium persulfate is white, odorless single crystal, the formula is (NH4) 2S2O8, it has strong oxidation and corrosion, when heated, it decomposes easily, moisture absorption is not easy, it is soluble in water, the solubility increases in warm water, it can hydrolyze into ammonium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous solution. The dry product has good stability, storage is easy, and it has the advantage of convenience and safety and so on. When heated to 120 °C, it can decompose, it is easily damped and it can cake in moist air. It is mainly used as an oxidizing agent and the preparation of hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate and other persulfate. It can be used as free initiator of polymerization reaction, particularly vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization of polymerizable compound and redox polymerization. It can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. It can be used to prepare aniline dyes and dye oxidation and electroplating industry, photographic industry and chemical analysis. For food-grade, it can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew. It can be used as metal etchant, circuit board cleaning and etching, copper and aluminum surface activation, modified starch, pulp and textile bleaching at low temperature and desizing, circulating water purification treatment systems, oxidative degradation of harmful gases, low formaldehyde adhesive stick bound to accelerate, disinfectants, hair dye decolorization.
Ammonium persulfate is non-flammable, but it can release of oxygen, so it has the role of combustion-supporting, storage environment must be dry and clean, and well-ventilated. People should pay attention to moisture and rain, it should not be transported in rain. Keep away from fire, heat and direct sunlight. It should keep sealed packaging, clear and intact labels. It should be stored separately with flammable or combustible materials, organic compounds, as well as rust, a small amount of metal, and other reducing substances, it should avoid be mixed to prevent the decomposition of ammonium persulfate and cause explosion.
It is colorless monoclinic crystal or white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water, the solubility is 58.2g/100ml water at 0℃.
It can be used as analytical reagents, photographic fixing agent and reducing agent.
It can be used as food preservative, oxidizing agent and initiator of high-molecular polymer.
It can be used as raw material of producting persulfate and hydrogen peroxide in chemical industry, inhibitor of polymerization organic polymer, initiator of during the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. It can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. It can also be used as corrodent in plate metals cutting eclipse and oil extraction in oil industry. For food-grade, it can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew.
It can be used for flour modifier (Limited ≤0.3g/kg, the Japanese standard, 1999); Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungicide (limit 0.1%, FAO/WHO, 1984).
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Wang Xiaodong.
It can be derived by the electrolysis of ammonium sulfate and dilute sulfuric acid and then crystallized.
Electrolytic process Ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid formulates to form liquid electrolyte, it is decontaminated by electrolysis, HSO4-can discharge and generate peroxydisulfate acidat in the anode, and then reacts with ammonium sulfate to generate ammonium persulfate, ammonium persulfate goes through filtration, crystallization, centrifugal separation, drying to get ammonium persulfate product when the content reaches a certain concentration in the anode.
Anode reaction: 2HSO4--2e → H2S2O8
Cathodic reaction: 2H ++ 2e → H2 ↑
(NH4) 2S2O4 + H2S2O8 → (NH4) 2S2O8 + H2SO4
Acute oral toxicity
Rat LD50: 689 mg/kg; intraperitoneal-rat LD50: 226 mg/kg.
Explosive hazardous characteristics
It is strong oxidant, it can explode when mixed with reducing agent, sulfur, phosphorus etc; it can explode when be heated, impacted, and meet fire.
Flammability hazard characteristics
It can decompose of oxygen when high heat; it can generate toxic nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ammonia fumes when heated.
Treasury should have ventilation and low-temperature drying; loading and unloading should be light; it should be stored separately with organic matter, reducing agents, sulfur, phosphorus combustibles.
Mist of water, sand.
TWA 2 mg/m3.
Off-white crystalline powder
Ammonium persulfate is a colorless or white crystalline solid.
Ammonium Persulfate is a bleaching agent for food starch that is used up to 0.075% and with sulfur dioxide up to 0.05%.
Used for detection and determination of manganese and iron.
As oxidizer and bleacher; to remove hypo; reducer and retarder in photography; in dyeing, manufacture of aniline dyes; oxidizer for copper; etching zinc; decolorizing and deodorizing oils; electroplating; washing infected yeast; removing pyrogallol stains; making soluble starch; depolarizer in electric batteries; In animal chemistry chiefly for detection and determination of manganese.
A white crystalline solid. A strong oxidizing agent. Does not burn readily, but may cause spontaneous ignition of organic materials. Used as a bleaching agent and as a food preservative.
Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.
Ammonium persulfate is a potent oxidizing agent. A powdered mixture with aluminum and water can explode [NFPA 491M 1991]. A mixture with sodium peroxide will explode if subjected to friction (crushing in a mortar), heating, or if a stream of carbon dioxide is passed over Ammonium persulfate [Mellor 10:464 1946-47]. Acidic solutions dissolve iron violently, [Mellor, 1947, Vol. 10, 470].
Fire risk in contact with reducers.
Inhalation produces slight toxic effects. Contact with dust irritates eyes and causes skin rash.
Persulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents, and hair bleaches. Ammonium persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. It may induce irritant dermatitis, (mainly) nonimmunologic contact urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers. People reacting to ammonium persulfate also react to other persulfates such as potassium persulfate.
Poison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A powerful oxidizer that can react vigorously with reducing agents. Releases oxygen when heated. Mxtures with sodium peroxide are explosives sensitive to friction, heating above 75℃, or contact with CO2 or water. Mixtures with (powdered aluminum + water) or (zinc + ammonia) are explosive. Violent reaction with iron or solutions of ammonia + silver salts. Solution with sulfuric acid is a strong oxidzing cleaning solution. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SO,, NH3, and NOx.
It is used as a bleaching agent, in photographic chemicals, and to make dyes. It is also used as an ingredient of polymerization catalysts.
UN1444 Ammonium persulfate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer
Recrystallise it at room temperature from EtOH/water. It gradually loses NH3 on exposure to air. Its solubility is 0.5g/mL at 20o, and 2g/mL at 100o.
Decomposes in water and moist air, forming oxygen gas. A strong oxidizer; reacts with reducing agents; organic and combustible materials. Incompatible with heat, sodium peroxide (produces a friction-, heat-, and water-sensitive explosive); aluminum powder.
May be treated with large volumes of water, neutralized and flushed to sewer. This applies to small quantities only.
Ammonium persulfate Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Ammonium sulfate
- Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
- AMMONIUM SULFITE
- Ammonium bisulfite
- ammonium trihydrogen disulphate
- Trans-hydroxy sulfone
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Sulfurous Acid
- Ammonium hydrogen sulfate
- BIS(TETRA-N-BUTYLAMMONIUM) PEROXYDISULFATE
- Ammonium carbonate
- Ammonium acetate
- Ammonium hydroxide
- Ammonium nitrate
- Molybdic acid
- Ammonium persulfate
- AMMONIUM SULFIDE