1-Pentanol Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- −78 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 136-138 °C(lit.)
- 0.811 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density
- 3 (vs air)
- vapor pressure
- 1 mm Hg ( 13.6 °C)
- refractive index
- 2056 | AMYL ALCOHOL
- Flash point:
- 120 °F
- storage temp.
- Flammables area
- water: soluble22.8g/L at 25°C
- APHA: ≤30
- PH Range
- Pleasant 0.1 ppm
- Relative polarity
- Odor Threshold
- explosive limit
- 10%, 100°F
- Water Solubility
- 22 g/L (22 ºC)
- JECFA Number
- Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 71-41-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- 1-Pentanol (71-41-0)
- Hazard Codes
- Risk Statements
- Safety Statements
- UN 1105 3/PG 3
- WGK Germany
- Autoignition Temperature
- 572 °F
- Hazard Note
- HS Code
- 2905 19 00
- Hazardous Substances Data
- 71-41-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
- LD50 orally in Rabbit: 3670 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit 2306 mg/kg
1-Pentanol Usage And Synthesis
Amyl alcohols (pentanols) have eight isomers. All are flammable, colorless liquids, except the isomer 2,2- dimethyl-1-propanol, which is a crystalline solid.
Amyl alcohol has a characteristic fusel-like sweet and pleasant odor and burning taste. It is somewhat more toxic than ethyl alcohol.
1-Pentanol is a clear, colorless liquid at ambient temperatures.The air odor detection level (lowest perceptible level) was reported as 10 ppm for 1-pentanol .
Reported found in banana, sweet cherry, cranberry, bourbon, vanilla, rice bran and Brazil nut.
Raw material for pharmaceutical preparations; organic synthesis solvent.
1-Pentanol is made primarily by the oxo process, which involves the reaction of butenes with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, followed by hydrogenation. 1-Pentanol is used as a solvent, as a chemical intermediate for esters, and as a food additive and flavoring substance. The primary routes of industrial exposure are by dermal contact and inhalation.
ChEBI: An alkyl alcohol that is pentane in which a hydrogen of one of the methyl groups is substituted by a hydroxy group. It has been isolated from Melicope ptelefolia.
Aroma threshold values
Detection at 1.6 to 70 ppm
Taste threshold values
Taste characteristics at 50 ppm: intense fusel, fermented, bready and cereal with a fruity undertone
A colorless liquid with a mild to moderately strong odor. Less dense than water. Flash point 91°F. Boiling point 280°F. Vapors heavier than air. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Vapors may irritate skin and eyes. Used as a solvent and to make other chemicals.
Pentanol is incompatible with strong oxidising agents, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, hydrogen trisulphide, acids, acetaldehyde, acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, lithium aluminium hydride, isocyanates, dialkylmagnesiums, n-halomides, ethylene oxide, hypochlorous acid, hydrogen peroxide and sulphuric acid, nitrogen tetraoxide, nitryl hypochlorite, permonosulphuric acid, and tri-isobutyl aluminium.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Soluble in water.
Moderately toxic, flammable if exposed to powerful oxidizers. Incompatible with oxidizing materials, hydrogen trisulfide [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 224].
Lower explosive level in air 1.2% by volume. Moderate fire risk.
Irritation of skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; headache and vertigo; dyspnea and cough; nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Double vision, deafness, delirium, and occasionally fatal poisoning, preceded by severe nervous symptoms, have been reported. Coma, glycosuria, and methemoglobinemia can occur.
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. An eye and upper respiratory irritant by inhalation. A severe skin and eye irritant. Ingestion can cause headache, nausea, vomiting, delirium, and methemoglobin formation. Mutation data reported. Extremely flammable if exposed to heat, flame, or powerful oxiduers. Moderately explosive when exposed to flame. Incompatible with oxidzing materials, hydrogen trisulfide. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, dry chemical.
(n-isomer); Suspected reprotoxic hazard, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (iso-, primary): Possible risk of forming tumors, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (sec-, active primary-, and other isomers) Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction). Used as a solvent in organic synthesis and synthetic flavoring, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors; making plastics and other chemicals; as a flotation agent. The (n-isomer) is used in preparation of oil additives, plasticizers, synthetic lubricants, and as a solvent.
UN2811 Pentanols, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3- Flammable liquid. UN1987 Alcohols, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
Dry 1-pentanol with anhydrous K2CO3 or CaSO4, filter and fractionally distil it. It has also been treated with 1-2% of sodium and heated at reflux for 15hours to remove water and chlorides. Traces of water can be removed from the near-dry alcohol by refluxing it with a small amount of sodium in the presence of 2-3% n-amyl phthalate or succinate followed by distillation (see ethanol). Small amounts of amyl alcohol have been purified by esterifying with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, recrystallising the ester from CS2, saponifying with ethanolic-KOH, drying with CaSO4 and fractionally distilling [Olivier Recl Trav Chim Pays-Bas 55 1027 1936]. [Beilstein 1 IV 1640.]
Forms an explosive mixture with air. Contact with strong oxidizers and hydrogen trisulfide may cause fire and explosions. Incompatible with strong acids. Violent reaction with alkaline earth metals forming hydrogen, a flammable gas.
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
1-Pentanol Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Cyclobutanecarbonyl chloride
- TRANS-2-PHENYL-1-CYCLOPROPANECARBONYL CHLORIDE
- 1-Chlorocarbonyl-1-methylethyl acetate
- Cyclopentanecarbonyl chloride
- TIMTEC-BB SBB008460
- Cyclopropanecarbonyl Chloride
- Pentobarbital sodium
- FUSEL OIL
- Ethyl acetate
- FUSEL OIL
- Isoamyl nitrite
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