4-Aminobiphenyl Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 52-54 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 191 °C15 mm Hg(lit.)
- 1.1154 (rough estimate)
- vapor pressure
- 6 x 10-5 mmHg at 20–30 °C (quoted, Mercer et al., 1990)
- refractive index
- 1.5785 (estimate)
- Flash point:
- storage temp.
- -20°C Freezer
- Soluble in Dichloromethane, DMSO and Methanol
- 4.35(at 18℃)
- Water Solubility
- 842 mg/L at 20–30 °C (quoted, Mercer et al., 1990)
- Henry's Law Constant
- (x 1010 atm?m3/mol): 3.89 at 25 °C (calculated, Mercer et al., 1990)
- Stable, but slowly reacts with oxygen in the air. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids, acid anhydrides, acid chlorides.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 92-67-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
- 1 (Vol. 1, Sup 7, 99, 100F) 2012
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- 4-Aminobiphenyl (92-67-1)
- Hazard Codes
- Risk Statements
- Safety Statements
- UN 3077 9/PG 3
- WGK Germany
- Autoignition Temperature
- 842 °F
- HS Code
- Hazardous Substances Data
- 92-67-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
- Acute oral LD50 for rats 200 mg/kg, mice 50 mg/kg (quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
4-Aminobiphenyl Usage And Synthesis
4-Aminobiphenyl is an aromatic amine (arylamine) that exists at room temperature as a colorless crystalline solid with a floral odor. It is slightly soluble in cold water, but readily soluble in hot water. It is soluble in ethanol, ether, acetone, chloroform, and lipids. It oxidizes in air and emits toxic fumes when heated to decomposition (Akron 2009).
4-Aminobiphenyl is a combustible, colorless to tan crystalline solid that turns purple on exposure to air. May be used in a liquid solution. Floral odor.
Colorless to yellow-brown crystalline solid with a floral-like odor. Becomes purple on exposure to air.
Previously used as a rubber antioxidant; no longer produced on a commercial scale
In the United States, 4-aminobiphenyl now is used only in laboratory research. It formerly was used commercially as a rubber antioxidant, as a dye intermediate, and in the detection of sulfates (HSDB 2009).
In the detection of sulfates. Formerly as rubber antioxidant. As carcinogen in cancer research, induces chromosomal instability in human cancer cells.
ChEBI: An aminobiphenyl that is biphenyl substituted by an amino group at position 4.
Because of its carcinogenic effects, 4-aminobiphenyl has not been produced commercially in the United States since the mid 1950s (Koss et al. 1969). It was present in the drug and cosmetic color additive D&C yellow no. 1; however, use of this color additive was discontinued in the late 1970s (HSDB 2009). 4-Aminobiphenyl has beenreported to be formed by the decomposition of 1,3-diphenyltriazeneproduced by the reaction of diazoaniline and aniline during manufacture of the dye D&C red no. 33 (Bailey 1985). In 2009, 4-aminobiphenyl (for use in research) was available from 11 U.S. suppliers, including one company that supplied bulk quantities (ChemSources 2009). 4-Aminobiphenyl also has been reported as a contaminant in diphenylamine (HSDB 2009).
Colorless to yellowish-brown crystals or light brown solid.
Air & Water Reactions
Is oxidized by air (darkens on oxidation). Insoluble in water.
4-AMINOBIPHENYL is a weak base. Incompatible with acids and acid anhydrides. Forms salts with hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Can be diazotized, acetylated and alkylated. . May react with strong oxidizing agents.
Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorp- tion. Confirmed carcinogen. Bladder and liver can- cer.
4-Aminodiphenyl exposure is associated with a high incidence of bladder cancer in humans.
4-AMINOBIPHENYL is probably combustible.
Confirmed human carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Human mutation data reported. An irritant. Effects resemble those of benzidine. See also BENZIDINE. Slight to moderate fire hazard when exposed to heat, flames (sparks), or powerful oxidzers. To fight fire, use water spray, mist, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx,. See also AROMATIC AMINES.
4-Aminobiphenyl is no longer manufactured commercially and is only used for research purposes. 4-Aminobiphenyl was formerly used as a rubber antioxidant and as a dye intermediate. Is a contaminant in 2-aminobiphenyl.
4-Aminobiphenyl is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans.
Cancer of the urinary bladder was first reported to be associated with occupational exposure to 4-aminobiphenyl in a descriptive epidemiological study (published in the mid 1950s), in which 11% (19 of 171) of workers in a plant manufacturing 4-aminobiphenyl developed urinary-bladder cancer. These workers had been exposed to 4-aminobiphenyl for 1.5 to 19 years between 1935 and 1955. Publication of this study led to an effort to discontinue production and useof 4-aminobiphenyl. Starting in 1955, 541 workers who had been exposed to 4-aminobiphenyl were followed for an additional 14 years; 43 men (7.9%) developed histologically confirmed urinary-bladder cancer. In a survey of workers at a plant producing a variety of chemicals, the risk of mortality from urinary-bladder cancer was elevated tenfold, and all of the men who died of urinary-bladder cancer had worked at the plant during the period when 4-aminobiphenyl was used (1941 through 1952). The International Agency for Research onCancer concluded that there was sufficient evidence of the carcinogenicity of 4-aminobiphenyl in humans (IARC 1972, 1987).
Since 4-aminobiphenyl was listed in the First Annual Report on Carcinogens, most research on its carcinogenicity has focused on exposure from cigarette smoking. Epidemiological studies have reported the incidence of urinary-bladder cancer to be 2 to 10 times as high among cigarette smokers as among nonsmokers. Higher levels of 4-aminobiphenyl adducts (4-aminobiphenyl metabolites bound to DNA or protein) were detected in bladder tumors (DNA adducts) and red blood cells (hemoglobin adducts) from smokers thanfrom nonsmokers (Feng et al. 2002). In a case-control study, levels of 4-aminobiphenyl–hemoglobin adducts were higher in smokers with urinary-bladder cancer than in a control group of similarly exposed smokers (Del Santo et al. 1991). A Taiwanese study reported that 4-aminobiphenyl–hemoglobin adducts were associated with increased risk of liver cancer (Wang et al. 1998).
Ring oxidation of 4-aminobiphenyl occurred only to a minor extent in microsomes. In contrast, N-oxidation of 4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) is preferentially catalyzed by the phenobarbital-induced enzymes P- 450PB-B and P-450PB-D to cause ring oxidation and methylene carbon oxidation. 4,4'-Methylene-bis-(2- chloroaniline) ring oxidation and methylene carbon oxidation show varied cytochrome P-450 selectivity and accounted for 14-79% of total oxidation products.
UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required. UN3143 Dyes, solid, toxic, n.o.s. or Dye intermediates, solid, toxic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required
Crystallise it from water or EtOH. [Beilstein 12 IV 3241.] CARCINOGENIC.
Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides and acid anhydrides.
Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Controlled incineration whereby oxides of nitrogen are removed from the effluent gas by scrubber, catalytic or thermal devices.
- 2,7-Diaminofluorene dihydrochloride
- 2-FLUORO-7-NITROFLUORENE, 99
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