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Vanadium(V) oxide

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Vanadium(V) oxide Basic information

Product Name:
Vanadium(V) oxide
Mol File:

Vanadium(V) oxide Chemical Properties

Melting point:
690 °C
Boiling point:
3380 °C(lit.)
3.35 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor pressure 
8 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
Flash point:
storage temp. 
Poison room
H2O: soluble
Specific Gravity
4 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)(slurry)
Water Solubility 
1 g/125 mL
Stable. Incompatible with chlorine, chlorates, acids, alkali metals, interhalogens.
CAS DataBase Reference
1314-62-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Vanadium(v) oxide(1314-62-1)
EPA Substance Registry System
Vanadium pentoxide (1314-62-1)

Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
Risk Statements 
Safety Statements 
UN 3289 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 
HS Code 
Hazardous Substances Data
1314-62-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
LD50 orally in Rabbit: 400 - 500 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rat > 2000 mg/kg



Vanadium(V) oxide Usage And Synthesis

Physical properties

Brown-yellow orthorhombic crystals; density 3.35 g/cm3; melts at 670°C; decomposes at 1,800°C; slightly soluble in water, 0.8g/100 mL at 20°C; soluble in concentrated acids forming an orange-yellow solution; soluble in alkalies forming vanadates.


Vanadium(V) oxide is the oxide form of vanadium. As an important vanadium compound, it is used as the major precursor to alloys of vanadium and is widely used as industrial catalyst. It can be used for the production of ferrovanadium and sulfuric acid. It can also catalyze the oxidation reaction of some anhydrides. It can also be used as a detector material in bolometer arrays for thermal imaging because of its thermal resistance. Vanadium(V) oxide is also a kind of highly selective and stable ethanol sensor materials. Moreover, the microspheres of vanadium(V) oxide formed during the synthesis of vanadium(V) oxide nanorods in a mediated polyol process exhibit excellent electrochemical properties when used as the cathode material in a lithium-ion battery.
Other applications are in making yellow glass; as a depolarizer; as a developer in photography; inhibiting UV transmission in glass;and coloring ceram; as a mordant for dyeing and printing fabrics.


Vanadium pentoxide is an intermediate in recovering vanadium from minerals (See Vanadium). Sodium polyvanadate, obtained as a red cake in one of the steps in extracting vanadium from its ores is calcined at 700°C in air to form a melt of vanadium pentoxide. Pentoxide is prepared in purified form by dissolving red cake in sodium carbonate solution followed by addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia and ammonium chloride. Ammonium metavanadate is precipitated which on decomposition at 320 to 430°C forms vanadium pentoxide.


Liu, J, et al. "Vanadium Pentoxide Nanobelts: Highly Selective and Stable Ethanol Sensor Materials." Advanced Materials 17.17(2005): 764-767.
Cao, A. M., et al. "Self-assembled vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) hollow microspheres from nanorods and their application in lithium-ion batteries." Angewandte Chemie 44.28(2005): 4391.
Moskalyk, R. R., and A. M. Alfantazi. "Processing of vanadium: a review." Minerals Engineering 16.9 (2003): 793-805.
Khorfan, S., A. Wahoud, and Y. Reda. "Recovery of vanadium pentoxide from spent catalyst used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid." Periodica Polytechnica. Chemical Engineering 45.2 (2001): 131.
Friedrichsen, Wilhelm, and Otto Goehre. "Supported catalysts containing vanadium pentoxide and titanium dioxide and their use for the production of carboxylic acids and carboxylic anhydrides." U.S. Patent No. 3,684,741. 15 Aug. 1972.
Karunagaran, B., et al. "Study of a pulsed laser deposited vanadium oxide based microbolometer array." Smart materials and structures 12.2 (2003): 188.


Vanadium pentoxide is a yellow to red colour solid and is odourless. Vanadium pentoxide dust is the particulate form of a non-combustible, odourless, yellow-orange or dark grey crystalline solid.
On decomposition by heating, vanadium pentoxide produces toxic fumes. Vanadium is widely distributed in the Earth’s crust in a wide range of minerals and in fossil fuels. Vanadium pentoxide, the major commercial product of vanadium, is mainly used in the production of alloys with iron and aluminium. It is also used as an oxidation catalyst in the chemical industry and in a variety of minor applications.

Chemical Properties

Vanadium pentoxide dust is an odorless, yellow to red crystal, or powder; or fume (when vanadium is heated). Vanadium pentoxide fume is a finely divided particulate dispersed in air.

Chemical Properties

A yellow to rust-brown or orange crystals or powder. Slightly soluble in water and denser than water. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. May be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption.


As catalyst in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3, alcohol to acetaldehyde, etc.; for the manufacture of yellow glass; inhibiting ultraviolet light transmission in glass; depolarizer; as developer in photography; in form of ammonium vanadate as mordant in dyeing and printing fabrics and in manufacture of aniline black.


Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a reddish-yellow powder extracted from minerals using strong acids or alkalies. In addition to being used as a catalyst for many organic chemical reactions, it is used in photography and in UV-protected windowpanes and to color ceramics and dye cloth.


vanadium pentoxide: A crystalline compound,V2O5, used extensively as a catalyst inindustrial gas-phase oxidationprocesses.

Reactivity Profile

Vanadium pentoxide is acidic in many reactions. Hence, soluble in bases. [Kirk-Othmer]. Can react with ClF3, Li, peroxyformic acid and (Ca+S+H2O). Also reacts with strong acids.

Health Hazard

Probable oral lethal dose for humans is between 5 and 50 mg/kg or between 7 drops and 1 teaspoonful for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. Toxicity is about the same magnitude as pentavalent arsenic. A person with chronic respiratory disease is at greater risk when exposed to this substance.

Fire Hazard

Container may explode in heat of fire. When heated to decomposition, Vanadium pentoxide emits acrid smoke and fumes of vanadium oxides. Material is not flammable but Vanadium pentoxide may increase the intensity of the fire when in contact with combustible materials. Avoid chlorine trifluoride; lithium; peroxyformic acid; and calcium, sulfur, water complexes. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion, inhalation, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intratracheal, and intravenous routes. An experimental teratogen. Human systemic effects by inhalation: bronchiolar constriction, including asthma, cough, dpspnea, sputum, and conjunctiva irritation. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. A respiratory irritant; causes skin pallor, greenish-black tongue, chest pain, cough, dyspnea, palpitation, lung changes. When ingested it causes gastrointestinal tract disturbances. May also cause a papular skin rash. Mixtures with calcium + sulfur + water may ignite spontaneously. The absorption of V2O5 by inhalation is nearly 100%. Incompatible with ClF3, Li, peroxyformic acid. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes of VOx. See also VANADIUM COMPOUNDS.

Potential Exposure

(dust); Suspected reprotoxic hazard, Suspected of causing genetic defects, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (fume) Possible risk of forming tumors, Vanadium pentoxide is an industrial catalyst in oxidation reactions; is used in glass and ceramic glazes; is a steel additive; and is used in welding electrode coatings.


UN2862 Vanadium pentoxide, nonfused form, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.


Strong acids; lithium, chlorine trifluoride; peroxyformic acid; combustible substances.

Waste Disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Vanadium pentoxide may be salvaged or disposed of in a sanitary landfill.


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