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3-Nitroaniline

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3-Nitroaniline Basic information

Product Name:
3-Nitroaniline
CAS:
99-09-2
MF:
C6H6N2O2
MW:
138.12
EINECS:
202-729-1
Mol File:
99-09-2.mol
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3-Nitroaniline Chemical Properties

Melting point:
111-114 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
306 °C
Density 
0,901 g/cm3
vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 119 °C)
refractive index 
1.6396 (estimate)
Flash point:
196 °C
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
1.25g/l
form 
Crystals, Crystalline Powder and/or Chunks
pka
2.466(at 25℃)
Colour Index 
37030
color 
Yellow to ochre-yellow to orange
Specific Gravity
0.901
Water Solubility 
1.25 g/L
Merck 
14,6581
BRN 
636962
Henry's Law Constant
1.93 x 10-5 atm?m3/mol at 25 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
CAS DataBase Reference
99-09-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
m-Nitroaniline(99-09-2)
EPA Substance Registry System
m-Nitroaniline (99-09-2)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
T
Risk Statements 
23/24/25-33-52/53
Safety Statements 
28-36/37-45-61-28A
RIDADR 
UN 1661 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
BY6825000
8
Autoignition Temperature
521℃
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
6.1
PackingGroup 
II
HS Code 
29214210
Hazardous Substances Data
99-09-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
Acute LD50 for guinea pigs 450 mg/kg, mice 308 mg/kg, quail 562 mg/kg, rats 535 mg/kg (quoted, RTECS, 1985).

MSDS

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3-Nitroaniline Usage And Synthesis

Chemical Properties

3-Nitroaniline is a ochre-yellow to orange crystalline powder, crystallizes as yellow needles from water. It is moderately soluble in organic solvents and sparingly soluble in water (0.11 %).

Physical properties

Yellow, rhombic crystals or powder. Finely dispersered particles form explosive mixtures. Combustible.

Uses

Dyestuff intermediate. Acetylation of 3-nitroaniline followed by reduction gives 3-aminoacetanilide. Diazotization, followed by reduction of the diazosulfonate with ammonium bisulfite and subsequent hydrolysis, gives (3-nitrophenyl) hydrazine; an intermediate in the production of pyrazolone azo coupling components. 3-Nitroaniline is used as a diazo component (Fast Orange R Base) in azo dyes (e.g., C.I. Disperse Yellow 5 and C.I. Acid Orange 18).

General Description

Yellow needles or yellow powder.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Thermal stability of 3-Nitroaniline is reduced by various impurities. 3-Nitroaniline may be sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. 3-Nitroaniline may react explosively with ethylene oxide at 266° F. 3-Nitroaniline is incompatible with acids (nitric, sulfuric), acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, chloroformates and strong oxidizing agents. . Unstable when heated.

Hazard

Moderate fire risk. Toxic when absorbed by skin.

Fire Hazard

Flash point data for 3-Nitroaniline are not available; however, 3-Nitroaniline is probably combustible.

Chemical Synthesis

1,3-Dinitrobenzene is added towarmwater containing magnesium sulfate. An aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen sulfide (6molar equivalents) is added gradually to the vigorously stirred emulsion, and reduction is completed by heating to 90℃. The 3-nitroaniline produced solidifies on cooling and is separated by filtration.

Environmental Fate

Biological. A bacterial culture isolated from the Oconee River in North Georgia degraded 3- nitroaniline to the intermediate 4-nitrocatechol (Paris and Wolfe, 1987). A Pseudomonas sp. strain P6, isolated from a Matapeake silt loam, did not grow on 3-nitroaniline as the sole source of carbon. However, in the presence of 4-nitroaniline, all of the applied 3-nitroaniline metabolized completely to carbon dioxide (Zeyer and Kearney, 1983). In the presence of suspended natural populations from unpolluted aquatic systems, the second-order microbial transformation rate constant determined in the laboratory was reported to be 4.6 ± 0.1 x 10-13 L/organism?h (Steen, 1991).
In activated sludge inoculum, following a 20-d adaptation period, no degradation was observed (Pitter, 1976).
Chemical/Physical. Reacts with acids forming water soluble salts.

Purification Methods

Purify it as for o-nitroaniline. Warning: it is absorbed through the skin. [Beilstein 12 IV 1589.]

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