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Maltitol

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Maltitol Basic information

Product Name:
Maltitol
CAS:
585-88-6
MF:
C12H24O11
MW:
344.31
EINECS:
209-567-0
Mol File:
585-88-6.mol
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Maltitol Chemical Properties

Melting point:
149-152 °C(lit.)
alpha 
[α]D20 +106~+108゜ (c=0.8, H2O)
Boiling point:
399.42°C (rough estimate)
Density 
1.3863 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
105 ° (C=10, H2O)
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
Very soluble in water, practically insoluble in anhydrous ethanol.
pka
12.84±0.70(Predicted)
form 
Crystalline Powder
color 
White
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water. Slightly soluble in ethanol.
BRN 
89983
CAS DataBase Reference
585-88-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
D-Glucitol, 4-O-.alpha.-D-glucopyranosyl- (585-88-6)
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Safety Information

Safety Statements 
24/25
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
LZ4394000
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29400090

MSDS

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Maltitol Usage And Synthesis

Description

Maltitol is a-D-glucopyranosyl-1.4-glucitol. The solubility in water is approximately 1,750 g/L at room temperature. Maltitol is stable under the common processing conditions of foods. In addition to dry maltitol several types of syrups are available.
Maltitol is, depending on the concentration, approximately 90 % as sweet as sucrose and noncariogenic.
In the European Union, maltitol is approved as E 965 for a large number of food applications. It is GRAS in the United States and also approved in many other countries.

Chemical Properties

Maltitol is a-D-glucopyranosyl-1.4-glucitol. The solubility in water is approximately 1,750 g/L at room temperature. Maltitol is stable under the common processing conditions of foods. In addition to dry maltitol several types of syrups are available.
Maltitol is, depending on the concentration, approximately 90 % as sweet as sucrose and noncariogenic .
In the European Union, maltitol is approved as E 965 for a large number of food applications. It is GRAS in the United States and also approved in many other countries.

Chemical Properties

White or almost white, crystalline powder

Chemical Properties

Maltitol occurs as a white, odorless, sweet, anhydrous crystalline powder. It is a disaccharide consisting of one glucose unit linked with one sorbitol unit via an α-(1→4) bond. The crystal structure is orthorhombic.

Chemical Properties

Maltitol (ο-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(l-4)-sorbitol) is a disaccharide sugar alcohol derived from maltose by hydrogenation. On a commercial scale, maltitol is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup with high maltose content that is prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. After purification and concentration of the hydrogenated syrup ("hydrogenated glucose syrup"), a crystalline product with a maltitol content of between 90 and 99% and small amounts of sorbitol and hydrogenated trisaccharides are obtained. Pure maltitol is about 0.8 times as sweet as sucrose. In vitro experiments with enzyme preparations, homogenates of the intestinal mucosa, and everted intestinal sacs have demonstrated that maltitol may be hydrolyzed to glucose and sorbitol (the former is absorbed and the latter is incompletely absorbed and is subject to microbial fermentation in the gut). The hydrolysis of maltitol proceeds at a slower rate than that of sucrose but faster than that of isomalt or lactitol. To determine the extent to which maltitol is hydrolyzed under in vivo conditions, gnotobiotic ratswere given doses of 1.5 g maltitol or maltose. Analysis of residual test substance in the gastrointestinal tract 60 to 120 minutes after dosing demonstrated that 69% of the maltitol and 99% of the maltose was hydrolyzed in the small intestine. In a study with germfree rats, 84% of an ingested maltitol dose disappeared from the gastrointestinal tract within 24 hr. Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, and some species of Lactobacillus ferment maltitol, but S. sanguis and S. mitior do not. Maltitol (10% solution) does not lower plaque pH below 5.7 in humans tested by plaque telemetry.

Uses

Sweetener.

Uses

Maltitol is a polyhydric alcohol (polyol) produced by hydrogenation of maltose. it is approximately 90% as sweet as sucrose, has good stability, and is nonhygroscopic. uses include chewing gum, dry nut bakery products, and chocolate.

Uses

Maltol is a flavor enhancer used as a synthetic flavoring substance, the function of which is related to ethyl . It occurs naturally in chicory, cocoa, coffee, and cereals. It does not contribute a flavor of its own, but modifies the inherent flavors. As compared to ethyl , it is one-half to one-sixth as effective. It is less soluble, having a solubility of 1 g in 82 ml of water at 25°c. It has a melting range of 160–164°c. It is used to enhance the flavor and aroma of fruit, vanilla, and chocolate flavored foods and beverages. It is also used in beverages and desserts with a typical usage range of 10–200 ppm.

Definition

ChEBI: An alpha-D-glucoside consisting of D-glucitol having an alpha-D-glucosyl residue attached at the 4-position. Used as a sugar substitute.

Production Methods

Maltitol is produced by chemical hydrogenation of maltose, which can be obtained by enzymatic degradation of starch under conditions similar to those used for other starch hydrolysates such as glucose. The Starting material can be the different commercially available starches including corn, potato, and others. A partially degraded starch, which can be obtained by treatment with diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid and subsequent neutralization or with heat-stable a-amylase, is then subjected to enzyme treatment for further degradation to maltose-rich products.
Enzymes used for maltose production are b-amylases, fungal a-amylases, a-1.6- glucosidases, maltogenic amylases, and debranching enzymes, preferably with high temperature optimum.

Production Methods

Maltitol is obtained from hydrogenated maltose syrup. Starch is hydrolyzed to yield a high-concentration maltose syrup, which is hydrogenated with a catalyst. After purification and concentration, the syrup is crystallized.

Biotechnological Production

Maltitol is produced by chemical hydrogenation of maltose, which can be obtained by enzymatic degradation of starch under conditions similar to those used for other starch hydrolysates such as glucose. The Starting material can be the different commercially available starches including corn, potato, and others. A partially degraded starch, which can be obtained by treatment with diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid and subsequent neutralization or with heat-stable a-amylase, is then subjected to enzyme treatment for further degradation to maltose-rich products.
Enzymes used for maltose production are b-amylases, fungal a-amylases, a-1.6- glucosidases, maltogenic amylases, and debranching enzymes, preferably with high temperature optimum.
Examples can be found in patent applications for processes for production of maltose and maltitol.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Maltitol is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry in the formulation of oral dosage forms. It is a noncariogenic bulk sweetener, approximately as sweet as sucrose, well adapted as a diluent for different oral dosage forms, wet granulation, and sugarfree hard coating.

Safety

Maltitol is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations, confectionery, and food products, and is considered to be noncariogenic. It is generally regarded as a nontoxic, nonallergenic, and nonirritant material.
Digestion of maltitol follows two different metabolic pathways: absorption in the small intestine and fermentation in the large intestine (colon). These two metabolic pathways must thus be considered when evaluating the energy value. The hydrolysis of maltitol in the small intestine releases sorbitol and glucose. Glucose is actively transported and rapidly absorbed, whereas sorbitol absorption is passive. The nonabsorbed sorbitol and nonhydrolyzed maltitol are fermented by the microflora in the colon. The relative importance of the two absorption pathways depends on numerous individual factors and is related to the quantity of maltitol ingested. Excessive oral consumption (>50 g daily) may cause flatulence and diarrhea.
Maltitol exhibits a low glycemic index and can therefore, under medical supervision, have a place in the diet of diabetic patients. The intake of maltitol must be taken into account for the calculation of the daily glucidic allowance.
The WHO, in considering the safety of maltitol, did not set a value for the acceptable daily intake since the levels used in food to achieve a desired effect were not considered a hazard to health.

storage

Maltitol has good thermal and chemical stability. When it is heated at temperatures above 200°C, decomposition begins (depending on time, temperature, and other prevailing conditions). Maltitol does not undergo browning reactions with amino acids, and absorbs atmospheric moisture only at relative humidities of 89% and above, at 20°C.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in oral pharmaceutical formulations. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Maltitol Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
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010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
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Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
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21-61259100-
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Alfa Aesar
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400-610-6006; 021-67582000
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saleschina@alfa-asia.com
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd.
Tel:
021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
Email:
Sales-CN@TCIchemicals.com
Energy Chemical
Tel:
021-58432009
Email:
sales8178@energy-chemical.com
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