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AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE

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AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Basic information

Product Name:
AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE
CAS:
7790-98-9
MF:
ClH4NO4
MW:
117.49
EINECS:
232-235-1
Mol File:
7790-98-9.mol
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AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Chemical Properties

Melting point:
°Cd ec.)
Density 
1.95 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
refractive index 
1.482
form 
Crystalline
Specific Gravity
1.95
color 
White
Water Solubility 
Freely soluble in water. Soluble in methanol. Slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone. Insoluble in ether, ethyl acetate
Merck 
14,540
Stability:
Explosive when mixed with combustible material. Incompatible with organics, paper, wood shavings, etc. May explode if heated under confinement or as a result of friction. Incompatible with metals, reducing agents, strong acids.
CAS DataBase Reference
7790-98-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ammonium perchlorate (7790-98-9)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
O,Xi,Xn,E
Risk Statements 
9-44-48/20/22-36-3
Safety Statements 
17-36/37-27-16-14-35-26
RIDADR 
1442
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
SC7520000
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
5.1
PackingGroup 
II
Hazardous Substances Data
7790-98-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 oral in rabbit: 1900mg/kg

MSDS

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AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Usage And Synthesis

Chemical Properties

Ammonium perchlorate NH4CI04, is a white solid, soluble, formed by reaction of NH40H and perchlorate acid, and then evaporating. Used in explosives and pyrotechnics.

Uses

In explosives, pyrotechnic compositions, jet and rocket propellants.

General Description

A white, crystalline solid or powder. Classified as a division 1.1 explosive if powdered into particles smaller than 15 microns in diameter or if powdered into larger particles but thoroughly dried. Does not readily burn, but will burn if contaminated by combustible material. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Used to make rocket propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics, as an etching and engraving agent, and in analytical chemistry.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile

AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. Decomposes at 130°C and explodes at 380°C [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:608 1956]. Explosions have occurred in propellant formulations containing AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst. Although the cause was not been definitely established, AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE was most probably frictional heating from dragging a spatula through the mixture [ASESB Expl. Report 211 1966]. Can explode when mixed with sugar, charcoal or on contact with hot copper pipes. Becomes impact-sensitive when contaminated by powdered carbon, ferrocene, sulfur, or other reducing materials such as organic matter or powdered metals.

Hazard

Strong oxidizing agent; ignites violently with combustibles. Shock sensitive; may explode when exposed to heat or by spontaneous chemical reaction. Sensitive, high explosive when contaminated with reducing materials. Skin irritant.

Health Hazard

Irritating to skin and mucous membranes.

Safety Profile

moderately toxic by ingestion and parented routes. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame or by spontaneous chemical reaction with reducing materials. A very powerful oxidizer that has caused explosions in industry. Ignites violently with combustibles. Severe explosion hazard; decomposes at 130' and explodes at 380'. When contaminated by powdered carbon, ferrocene, S, organic matter, powdered metals, nitryl perchlorate, potassium periodate, potassium permanganate, it becomes impact sensitive. Potentially explosive reactions with carbon (above 240℃), dichromium trioxide (at 270℃), cadmium oxide (at 260℃), zinc oxide (at 200°C), copper chromite, copper oxide, iron oxide, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, mono-, di-, tri-, or tetra-methylammonium perchlorates, metal perchlorates (e.g., lithium perchlorate, zinc perchlorate), nitrophenol-formaldehyde polymer. Mixtures with aluminum or copper burn violently when ignited. Mixtures with ethylene dinitrate ignite when stored at 60℃. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NH3 and Cl-. See also PERCHLORATES and EXPLOSIVES, HIGH.

Purification Methods

It is recrystallised twice from distilled water (2.5mL/g) between 80o and 0o, and dried in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5. Drying at 110o might lead to slow decomposition to the chloride. POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE.

AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

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