Gamma-butyrolactone(GBL) Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- −45 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:
- 204-205 °C(lit.)
- 1.12 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density
- 3 (vs air)
- vapor pressure
- 1.5 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
- refractive index
- 3291 | 4-HYDROXYBUTANOIC ACID LACTONE
- Flash point:
- 209 °F
- storage temp.
- explosive limit
- Water Solubility
- JECFA Number
- Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, strong reducing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 96-48-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- .gamma.-Butyrolactone (96-48-0)
Gamma-butyrolactone(GBL) Usage And Synthesis
Colorless transparent liquid It is miscible with water and the general organic and slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.
- It is an important organic synthesis intermediate which can be used to synthesize indole butyric acid, butyric acid, succinic acid, α-pyrrolidone, N-methylpyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone, acetyl-γ-butyrolactone, cyclopropylamine, ciprofloxacin, vitamin B1, chlorophyll and so on;
- It is a non-toxic high boiling point solvent with high solubility and safe and convenient usage and management;
- It is used as an extractant for butadiene, aromatic, advanced grease petroleum processing;
- It is used as an acrylonitrile fiber spinning solvent in the chemical fiber industry.
- It is a thinner and curing agent commonly used in wool, nylon, acrylonitrile and other fiber dyeing auxiliaries and other chemical industries.
Maleic anhydride hydrogenation method is an advanced technology developed in 1970s. It can produce tetrahydrofuran and γ-butyrolactone in any proportion with a hydrogenation reaction, and the usual ratio is tetrachlorofuran: γ-butyrolactone = 3-4:1.
There are many production enterprises, but usually in small scale. The average level is 300t/a. The production capacity account for 30% of the total domestic production capacity. 2.1, 4-butanediol dehydrogenation reactor is a tube array reactor, filled with flake copper catalyst (with zinc oxide as the carrier). The reaction temperature is controlled at 230-240 ° C. The yield of the product is obtained by reduced pressure distillation of and the yield is above 77%.
oral-rat LD50: 1540 mg/kg; oral-mouse LD50: 1720 mg/kg
Hazardous characteristics of the explosive
Explosible when react with butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and sodium hydroxide
Flammable in case of heat, open flame; being able to react with oxidant; releasing toxic pungent smoke when in the process of pyrolysis.
Storage and transportation properties
Make sure ventilating, low temperature and drying in the warehouse; separate from the oxidant; prevent fires.
Dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam
Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone. An endogenous neuroregulator made from gamma-amino butyrate and the precursor of gamma hydroxybutyrate. It causes selective increase of brain dopamine by inhibiting its release from nerve terminals. The compound has sedative properties at low doses and produces surgical anesthesia at high doses. It is also used as an industrial solvent and precursor.
γ-Butyrolactone has a faint, sweet, aromatic, slightly buttery odor.
Oily, colorless, clear liquid. Faint, pleasant odor.
colourless oily liquid
Reported found as a constituent in coffee aroma; a volatile flavor component in roasted filberts as well. Also reported found in tomato, potato, soybeans, beans, vinegar, mushrooms, roasted chicken, beef, cider, beer, wine, scallops and clams.
r-butyrolactone is one kind of important fine chemicalintermediate, simultaneously also is one kind of performance fine highboiling point solvent, ideal antioxidant, plasticizer,extracting agent, absorbent, dispersing agent, solid stain, Coagulation Reagent.
Intermediate in the synthesis of polyvinylpyrrolidone, DL-methionine, piperidine, phenylbutyric acid, thiobutyric acids. Solvent for polyacrylonitrile, cellulose acetate, methyl methacrylate polymers, polystyrene. Constituent of paint removers, textile aids, drilling oils.
ChEBI: A butan-4-olide that is tetrahydrofuran substituted by an oxo group at position 2.
From acetylene and formaldehyde, also from a number of alternative sources; ethylene chlorohydrin, glutamic acid, γ-hydroxybutyric acid solutions, tetrahydrofuran, vinyl-acetic acid.
Aroma threshold values
Detection: 20 to 50 ppm
Taste threshold values
Taste characteristic at 75 ppm: milky, creamy with fruity peach-like afternotes.
Clear colorless oily liquid with a pleasant odor.
Air & Water Reactions
Hygroscopic. Soluble in water.
gamma-Butyrolactone can react with oxidizing materials, inorganic acids and bases, alcohols and amines. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. gamma-Butyrolactone is volatile with steam. . The combination of the lactone, butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and sodium hydroxide in the attempted synthesis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid caused a thermal runaway reaction that eventually exploded, [CISHC Chem. Safety Summ., 1977, 48, 3].
Toxic by ingestion. Questionable carcino- gen.
gamma-Butyrolactone is combustible.
Moderately toxic by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by skin contact. Mutation data reported. Less acutely toxic than ppropiolactone. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Potentially explosive reaction with butanol + 2,4 dichlorophenol + sodium hydroxide. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid and irritating fumes.
Used as a chemical intermediate for making other chemicals, including pesticides, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; as a solvent for paint, nail polish removers, and industrial chemicals. Used in electronics, drilling and petroleum industries as a stabilizer and solvent. Used as a flavoring agent in various foods and beverages, including grains and breakfast foods, candy, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Drug of abuse: the United States Food and Drug Administration has warned the public not to purchase or consume products, containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). FDA has also asked the companies that manufacture these products to voluntarily recall them. The agency has received reports of serious health problems—some that are potentially life-threatening—associated with the use of these products. Although labeled as dietary supplements and marketed under various brand names, these products are illegally marketed unapproved new drugs. False advertising claims include building muscles, improved physical performance, enhanced sex, reduced stress and induced sleep
Listed by some sources as unregulated. UN2810 Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1—Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.
Dry the lactone over anhydrous CaSO4, then fractionally distil it. Handle it in a fume cupboard due to its TOXICITY. [Beilstein 17 V 7.]
4-Butyrolactone is incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, alcohols, amines, strong and inorganic acids, strong bases. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. It is hygroscopic and volatile with steam. Combustible; vapor may form explosive mixture with air.
Use a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. It is inappropriate and possibly dangerous to the environment to dispose of expired or waste drugs and pharmaceuticals by flushing them down the toilet or discarding them to the trash. Household quantities of expired or waste pharmaceuticals may be mixed with wet cat litter or coffee grounds, double-bagged in plastic, discard in trash. Larger quantities shall carefully take into consideration applicable DEA, EPA, and FDA regulations. If possible return the pharmaceutical to the manufacturer for proper disposal being careful to properly label and securely package the material. Alternatively, the waste pharmaceutical shall be labeled, securely packaged and transported by a state licensed medical waste contractor to dispose by burial in a licensed hazardous or toxic waste landfill or incinerator. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
Gamma-butyrolactone(GBL) Preparation Products And Raw materials
- D-(-)-Gulonic acid gamma-lactone
- Cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic dianhydride
- 6-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid
- Succinic anhydride
- 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid
- Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate
- Isobutyric acid
- Erythromycin Estolate
- Maleic anhydride
- 4-Aminobutyric acid
- Phthalic anhydride
- Acetic anhydride
- Glutaric anhydride
- (-)-Corey lactone diol
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Purity:99.9%Min. Package:200kg/galvanized drum, 80 drums/20"FCL (16mt) Remarks:Manufacturer
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