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Magnesium perchlorate

Basic information Physical Properties Preparation Reactions Safety Related Supplier

Magnesium perchlorate Basic information

Product Name:
Magnesium perchlorate
CAS:
10034-81-8
MF:
2ClO4.Mg
MW:
223.2
EINECS:
233-108-3
Mol File:
10034-81-8.mol
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Magnesium perchlorate Chemical Properties

Melting point:
251 °C
Density 
2,21 g/cm3
form 
Solid
color 
White
Specific Gravity
2.21
Water Solubility 
Magnesium perchlorate is soluble in water, ethanol.
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,5678
Stability:
Stable, but moisture sensitive. Oxidizer - contact with combustible material may lead to fire. Incompatible with reducing agents, organic materials, trimethyl phosphate, powdered metals, strong acids, phosphorus.
CAS DataBase Reference
10034-81-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
Perchloric acid, magnesium salt (2:1) (10034-81-8)
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Safety Information

Hazard Codes 
O,Xi
Risk Statements 
8-36/37/38-14/15
Safety Statements 
17-26-27-36/37/39-43-7/8
RIDADR 
UN 1475 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
SC8925000
3-10
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
5.1
PackingGroup 
II
HS Code 
28299010

MSDS

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Magnesium perchlorate Usage And Synthesis

Physical Properties

White granular or flaky powder; highly deliquescent; density 2.21 g/cm3; decomposes at 251°C; very soluble in water (99.3g/100mL at 18°C); soluble in ethanol (24g/100mL) at 25°C.
Hexahydrate constitutes white rhombohedral crystals; refractive index 1.482; density 1.98 g/cm3; melts around 185°C; very soluble in water, releasing heat.

Preparation

Magnesium perchlorate may be prepared by adding perchloric acid to an aqueous solution of magnesium hydroxide. Crystallization yields hexahydrate, Mg(ClO4)2•6H2O.
Mg(OH)2 + 2HClO4 → Mg(ClO4)2 + H2O

Reactions

Magnesium perchlorate is a strong oxidizing agent. In aqueous solutions and in acid medium the most conspicuous reactions are those involving oxidation— characteristic of the oxidizing action of perchlorate ion, ClO4¯.
Thermal decomposition in the presence of a catalyst, such as manganese dioxide, yields magnesium chloride and oxygen:
Mg (ClO4)2→MgCl2 + 4O2

Description

Magnesium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Mg(ClO4)2. Magnesium perchlorate decomposes at 250°C. The heat of formation is 568.90 kJ/mol. If water is added to magnesium perchlorate, the reaction is highly exothermic and may cause damage to the eyes. Thus, this salt should be added to a sufficient amount of water in order to form a dilute solution.
Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O is composed of white, deliquescent crystals which are soluble in water and alcohol but explosive when in contact with reducing materials. This compound is used as a drying agent for gases. This salt is highly exothermic when added to water and releases steamy HCl gas. It can be dried to form the anhydrate by heating to 250°C under vacuum. The hexahydrate losses two molecules of water at 244°C in air and further decomposes to the dihydrate at 336°C and the anhydrate at 438°C.
The anhydrate has been used as a desiccant to dry gas streams or air samples. However, it is no longer used since perchlorates tend to form explosive compounds with a variety of organic materials as well as other substances.

Chemical Properties

Magnesium perchlorate is a white crystalline solid.

Chemical Properties

White crystals. Deliquescent; very soluble in water and alcohol.

Uses

As a drying agent for gases. The article of commerce may contain an amount of water equivalent to a dihydrate, but even the trihydrate is said to be effective for drying gases.

Preparation

Magnesium perchlorate can be prepared by reacting magnesium carbonate with a solution of perchloric acid:
MgCO3+ HClO4→Mg(ClO4)2+ CO2
This salt can also be prepared by an electrochemical method in water whereby magnesium perchlorate is formed fr

General Description

A white crystalline solid. Strongly absorbs water from air and dissolves in it. Accordingly, used as a regenerable drying agent. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire.

Reactivity Profile

Magnesium perchlorate is a strong oxidizing agent. Decomposes at 185-190°C [Hawley]. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in the fire or the combustible material is finely divided an explosion may result. Avoid contact with mineral acids because of the danger of explosion. In the preparation of anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide by vacuum distillation from anhydrous Magnesium perchlorate, an explosion occurred [MCA Case History 1187, 1966]. Drying ethylene oxide with Magnesium perchlorate resulted in an explosion [NSC Newsletter. Chem. Soc. 1959]. Magnesium perchlorate used in drying hydrocarbons exploded when heated to 220°C [Ind. & Eng. News 17:70. 1939]. As soon as trimethyl phosphite contacted a small amount of Magnesium perchlorate in a flask, there was a flash and an explosion that shattered the flask [Allison 1968].

Hazard

Dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact with organic materials.

Health Hazard

Inhalation of dust irritates mucous membranes. Ingestion of large amounts may be fatal; immediate symptoms include adominal pains, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, pallor, blueness, shortness of breath, unconsciousness. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Can form explosive mixture with combustible material or finely powdered metals. Increases the intensity of fires.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal route. Severe slun and eye irritant. A powerful oxidner which has caused many explosions in industry. Potentially explosive reactions with alkenes (above 22OoC), ammonia, aryl hydrazine + ether, dimethyl sulfoxide + heat, ethylene oxide, fluorobutane + water, organic materials, phosphorus, trimethyl phosphate. Reacts to form explosive products with ethanol (forms ethyl perchlorate), cellulose + dinitrogen tetraoxide + oxygen (forms cellulose nitrate). Avoid contact with mineral acids, but$ fluorides, hydrocarbons. A drying agent. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of MgO and Cl-. See also MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS and PERCHLORATES

Potential Exposure

Magnesium perchlorate is used as a drying agent for gases and as an oxidizing agent

Shipping

UN1475 Magnesium perchlorate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.

Purification Methods

Magnesium perchlorate (Anhydrone, Dehydrite) [10034-81-8 (anhydrous)] M 259.2, m >250o, pK2 5

Incompatibilities

A powerful oxidizer. Violent reaction with reducing agents; alkenes (above 220C), ammonia gas; organic matter; ethylene oxide, finely divided or powdered metals, combustible materials, phosphorus, dimethylsulfoxide, mineral acids; wet argon; hydrazines, alcohols, wet fluorobutane; butyl fluorides; organic materials. Forms explosive material with ethyl alcohol. Incompatible with many materials. Shock or heat may cause magnesium perchlorate to explode.

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Basic information Physical Properties Preparation Reactions Safety Related Supplier