Magnesium perchlorate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- 251 °C
- 2,21 g/cm3
- Specific Gravity
- Water Solubility
- Magnesium perchlorate is soluble in water, ethanol.
- Stable, but moisture sensitive. Oxidizer - contact with combustible material may lead to fire. Incompatible with reducing agents, organic materials, trimethyl phosphate, powdered metals, strong acids, phosphorus.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 10034-81-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Perchloric acid, magnesium salt (2:1) (10034-81-8)
Magnesium perchlorate Usage And Synthesis
White granular or flaky powder; highly deliquescent; density 2.21 g/cm3; decomposes at 251°C; very soluble in water (99.3g/100mL at 18°C); soluble in ethanol (24g/100mL) at 25°C.
Hexahydrate constitutes white rhombohedral crystals; refractive index 1.482; density 1.98 g/cm3; melts around 185°C; very soluble in water, releasing heat.
Magnesium perchlorate may be prepared by adding perchloric acid to an aqueous solution of magnesium hydroxide. Crystallization yields hexahydrate, Mg(ClO4)2•6H2O.
Mg(OH)2 + 2HClO4 → Mg(ClO4)2 + H2O
Magnesium perchlorate is a strong oxidizing agent. In aqueous solutions and in acid medium the most conspicuous reactions are those involving oxidation— characteristic of the oxidizing action of perchlorate ion, ClO4¯.
Thermal decomposition in the presence of a catalyst, such as manganese dioxide, yields magnesium chloride and oxygen:
Mg (ClO4)2→MgCl2 + 4O2
Magnesium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing
agent, with the formula Mg(ClO4)2. Magnesium perchlorate
decomposes at 250°C. The heat of formation is 568.90 kJ/mol. If water is added to magnesium perchlorate, the reaction
is highly exothermic and may cause damage to the
eyes. Thus, this salt should be added to a sufficient
amount of water in order to form a dilute solution.
Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O is composed of white, deliquescent crystals which are soluble in water and alcohol but explosive when in contact with reducing materials. This compound is used as a drying agent for gases. This salt is highly exothermic when added to water and releases steamy HCl gas. It can be dried to form the anhydrate by heating to 250°C under vacuum. The hexahydrate losses two molecules of water at 244°C in air and further decomposes to the dihydrate at 336°C and the anhydrate at 438°C.
The anhydrate has been used as a desiccant to dry gas streams or air samples. However, it is no longer used since perchlorates tend to form explosive compounds with a variety of organic materials as well as other substances.
Magnesium perchlorate is a white crystalline solid.
White crystals. Deliquescent; very soluble in water and alcohol.
As a drying agent for gases. The article of commerce may contain an amount of water equivalent to a dihydrate, but even the trihydrate is said to be effective for drying gases.
Magnesium perchlorate can be prepared by reacting magnesium carbonate with
a solution of perchloric acid:
MgCO3＋ HClO4→Mg(ClO4)2＋ CO2
This salt can also be prepared by an electrochemical method in water whereby magnesium perchlorate is formed fr
A white crystalline solid. Strongly absorbs water from air and dissolves in it. Accordingly, used as a regenerable drying agent. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire.
Magnesium perchlorate is a strong oxidizing agent. Decomposes at 185-190°C [Hawley]. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in the fire or the combustible material is finely divided an explosion may result. Avoid contact with mineral acids because of the danger of explosion. In the preparation of anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide by vacuum distillation from anhydrous Magnesium perchlorate, an explosion occurred [MCA Case History 1187, 1966]. Drying ethylene oxide with Magnesium perchlorate resulted in an explosion [NSC Newsletter. Chem. Soc. 1959]. Magnesium perchlorate used in drying hydrocarbons exploded when heated to 220°C [Ind. & Eng. News 17:70. 1939]. As soon as trimethyl phosphite contacted a small amount of Magnesium perchlorate in a flask, there was a flash and an explosion that shattered the flask [Allison 1968].
Dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact with organic materials.
Inhalation of dust irritates mucous membranes. Ingestion of large amounts may be fatal; immediate symptoms include adominal pains, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, pallor, blueness, shortness of breath, unconsciousness. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.
Behavior in Fire: Can form explosive mixture with combustible material or finely powdered metals. Increases the intensity of fires.
Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal route. Severe slun and eye irritant. A powerful oxidner which has caused many explosions in industry. Potentially explosive reactions with alkenes (above 22OoC), ammonia, aryl hydrazine + ether, dimethyl sulfoxide + heat, ethylene oxide, fluorobutane + water, organic materials, phosphorus, trimethyl phosphate. Reacts to form explosive products with ethanol (forms ethyl perchlorate), cellulose + dinitrogen tetraoxide + oxygen (forms cellulose nitrate). Avoid contact with mineral acids, but$ fluorides, hydrocarbons. A drying agent. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of MgO and Cl-. See also MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS and PERCHLORATES
Magnesium perchlorate is used as a drying agent for gases and as an oxidizing agent
UN1475 Magnesium perchlorate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.
Magnesium perchlorate (Anhydrone, Dehydrite) [10034-81-8 (anhydrous)] M 259.2, m >250o, pK2 5
A powerful oxidizer. Violent reaction with reducing agents; alkenes (above 220C), ammonia gas; organic matter; ethylene oxide, finely divided or powdered metals, combustible materials, phosphorus, dimethylsulfoxide, mineral acids; wet argon; hydrazines, alcohols, wet fluorobutane; butyl fluorides; organic materials. Forms explosive material with ethyl alcohol. Incompatible with many materials. Shock or heat may cause magnesium perchlorate to explode.
- AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE
- Magnesium hydride
- Sodium perchlorate
- Magnesium nitrate
- STRONTIUM CHLORATE
- CALCIUM PERCHLORATE
- BARIUM CHLORATE MONOHYDRATE
- STRONTIUM PERCHLORATE
- RADIUM CHLORATE
- beryllium perchlorate
- PERCHLORIC ACID
- MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE DIHYDRATE
- MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE HEXAHYDRATE
- Magnesium perchlorate
- MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE HYDRATE
- MAGNESIUM CHLORATE
- MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE, SOLUTION
- LITHIUM AND MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE: ENHANCING SYNTHETIC ORGANIC METHODOLOGIES
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