Silicon tetrahydride Chemical Properties
- Melting point:
- -185 °C
- Boiling point:
- -112 °C
- 1.114 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density
- 1.1 (vs air)
- colorless gas
- Specific Gravity
- Water Solubility
- decomposed by H2O; insoluble alcohol, benzene [HAW93]
- Hydrolytic Sensitivity
- 10: reacts extremely rapidly with moisture and oxygen - may be pyrophoric - sealed system required
- Exposure limits
- TLV-TWA 5 ppm (6.5 mg/m3) (ACGIH).
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Silane (7803-62-5)
Silicon tetrahydride Usage And Synthesis
Silane is a colorless, pyrophoric gas with a repulsive odor.
Silicon tetrahydride is a highly toxic gas with a repulsive odor. It is spontaneously flammable in air. Trichlorosilane has an acrid odor, fumes in air and supports combustion. It is a lachrymator and is moisture sensitive. Octamethyl tetrasilane is moisture sensitive.
It is used for doping of solid-state devicesand for preparing semiconducting silicon forthe electronic industry.
Source of hyperpure silicon for semiconductors.
ChEBI: The simplest silane, consisting of a single silicon atom carrying four hydrogens.
Silicon tetrahydride is a colorless, flammable and poisonous gas, with a strong repulsive odor. Silicon tetrahydride is easily ignited in air, reacts with oxidizing agents, is very toxic by inhalation, and is a strong irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Silicon tetrahydride is lighter than air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Silicon tetrahydride is used in the production of amorphous silicon.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Pure state ignites in air, the first seven to eight of the series 6H2n+1 ignite spontaneously in air at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures [Mellor 1:376 1946-47]. Slowly reacts with water to form silicon hydroxides and hydrogen gas.
Slowly reacts with water to form silicon hydroxides and hydrogen gas [Hydrides of the Elements of Main Groups I - IV 1971 p.513]. Silicon tetrahydride burns in contact with bromine, chlorine or covalent chlorides (carbonyl chloride, antimony pentachloride, tin(IV) chloride). Even traces of the free halogens may cause violent explosions, when handling Silicon tetrahydride, extreme caution should be taken, [Mellor, 1940, Vol. 6, 220]. Mixtures of Silicon tetrahydride and nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, detonate very easily, [Chem. Abs., 1990, 112, 121711].
Dangerous fire risk, ignites spontaneously in air. Strong irritant to tissue, skin and upper res- piratory tract.
Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Some may be toxic if inhaled at high concentrations. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases.
Very little information has been published onthe toxicology of this compound. The acutetoxicity of silane is much less than that ofgermane. Among the hydrides of group IVBelements, the toxicity of silane falls betweenthe nontoxic methane and moderately toxicgermane. Inhalation of the gas can causerespiratory tract irritation. A 4-hour exposureto a concentration of about 10,000 ppm in airproved fatal to rats.
EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Silicon tetrahydride will ignite spontaneously in air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.
Various silane derivatives are used as bonding agents between glass and the resin used as a coating agent of glass filaments. Organosilanes have been implicated as sensitizers in workers at a glass filament manufactory.
Mildly toxic by inhalation. Silanes are irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Easily ipted in air. Explosive reaction or ignition on contact with halogens or covalent halides (e.g., bromine, chlorine, carbonyl chloride, antimony pentachloride, tin(Iv> chloride). Ignites in oxygen. Can react with oxidizers. It may self-explode. When heated to decomposition it burns or explodes.
Silane is used as a doping agent for solid-state devices; as a source of silicon for semiconductors; and in the production of amorphous silicon.
UN2203 Silane, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.
An extremely flammable gas. Forms explosive mixture with air; may spontaneously ignite in air. A strong reducing agent. Reacts slowly with water forming silicon hydroxides and flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts with oxidizing agents; halogens , potassium hydroxide solution. Explodes in oxygen. Decomposes on heating or on burning producing silicon and hydrogen.
Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Dispose by controlled burning or seal cylinders and return to suppliers.
Silicon tetrahydride Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Carbon disulfide
- Nitrogen trifluoride
- Silicone oil
- Hexafluorosilicic acid
- SILANE COUPLING AGENT
- Tetraethyl orthosilicate
- tert-Butyldimethylsilyl chloride
- Triisopropylsilyl chloride
- Tetramethyl orthosilicate
- Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ester
- TrimethylSilyl Trifluoromethanesulfonate
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